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How Does Autism Affect Intellectual Development

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What Are The Signs Of Autism Spectrum Disorder

How Does Autism Affect A Child Development?

Signs of ASD range from mild to severely disabling, and every person is different. The following signs are considered to be red flags that indicate your young child may be at risk for autism. If your child shows any of the following signs, please get in touch with your childs healthcare provider to discuss a referral for an autism evaluation.

The signs include the following:

  • Your child doesnt respond to their name being called at all or responds inconsistently.
  • Your child doesnt smile widely or make warm, joyful expressions by the age of 6 months.
  • Your child doesnt engage in smiling, making sounds and making faces with you or other people by the age of 9 months.
  • Your child doesnt babble by 12 months.
  • No back-and-forth gestures such as showing, pointing, reaching or waving by 12 months.
  • No words by 16 months.
  • No meaningful, two-word phrases by 24 months.
  • Any loss of speech, babbling or social skills at any age.

Differences In Motor Development

It is thought that the difference in the physical-motor development of children with ASD is not due to the inadequate development of their imitation skills since they are not sufficiently concerned with their environment.

In the beginning, Leo Kanner stated that children with autism had the same motor development as normally developed children. After some point, he changed that claim. Even if these children have a normal physical appearance, there are differences and impairments in the development of motor skills compare to their peers. Although it seems that they will be able to perform every skill in their normal time as a physical structure, the development of some skills would be late.

Autism Spectrum Disorder in children often results in delays in their physical development. It affects the lower brain which is a responsible center for the individuals balance and coordination. The muscle tone of children with ASD may also be different from that of normally developed children.

The development of motor skills in children with autism is generally close to their chronological ages. These children may experience some problems with the movement in accordance with the directive and in the serialization of the movement. For example Mostly it could be in inadequacy in fine motor skills such as throwing cubes into a box, paper cutting with scissors.

Autism And Intellectual Disability

About 1% of the general population is thought to have intellectual disability, and about 10% of individuals with intellectual disability have Autism Spectrum Disorder or autistic traits. However, a much higher percentage of individuals with ASD have intellectual disability3.

The incidence of autism is 1 in 68 births in the United States. The occurrence is about 4.5 times more common in boys with a 1 in 42 incidence rate and girls have a rate of 1 in 1892.

About 1 in 6 children in the United States had a developmental disability in 2006-2008, ranging from mild disabilities such as speech and language impairments to serious developmental disabilities, such as intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, and autism2.

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Testing The Hypothesis Of No Differences Between Groups In Mean Indices Of Heterogeneity Profiles

ANOVA results on the overall scores of heterogeneity indices of the four groups showed that there were significant differences F = 17.9, < 0.001). Pairwise comparisons using t tests with a p value adjusted with the Bonferroni method showed differences between each ASD group and the TD group . However, the results also showed a significant difference between the Algerian and the Brazilian ASD groups .

Table 5 Overall, cognitive, and socio-emotional heterogeneity indices of the three ASD groups and the TD group.

But Progress Is There

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What research can tell us is that theres plenty of hope when it comes to how children with ASD progress. This progress can be measured in part by how children adapt to weaknesses identified years prior, through intervention and schooling. While its difficult to predict where a diagnosis of ASD will go, children on the spectrum do adapt over time, especially with treatment.

We know that treatment works. We know that starting interventions for ASD early in children yields better results. We know that, while outcomes will differ and symptoms vary greatly, children adapt over time. We know that skills that might be nonexistent at first can be taught, with consistent and effective teaching methods.

But we still lack the research to promote specific approaches and determine what kind of an approach yields the most progress for any given case. ASD is still an incredibly complex disorder, and one with plenty of mysteries. But its a disorder that can be addressed, treated, and lived with.

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What Does Autism Look Like In The Brain

People on the autism spectrum often dislike exposure to unexpected stimuli, but why is that? New research takes a look at what happens in the brain, and how that relates to a persons ability to tolerate exposure to various stimuli.

People with autism do not like unexpected stimuli, and it may be because brains are not as efficient at rapidly shifting between ideas or thoughts, notes Dr. Jeff Anderson, a professor in Radiology at the University of Utah Health in Salt Lake City.

Recently, Dr. Anderson and colleagues decided to try and gain a better understanding as to why individuals with autism may experience some of their symptoms.

To do so, they directed their attention to the complex circuitry of the human brain. We wondered if we could see how local circuits in the brain react in patients with autism, explains the researcher.

The research team reports the

Early Signs Of Autism Include:

  • Failure to respond to their name by one year of age.
  • Not pointing at interesting objects by the age of fourteen months.
  • Not playing pretend by eighteen months of age.
  • Inability to understand the feelings displayed by others, or to talk about their own.
  • Delayed skills in the areas of speech and communication.
  • Echolalia, or excessive repetition of certain phrases or single words.
  • Responding to questions with unrelated answers.
  • Being particularly sensitive to minor changes in personal environment and routines.
  • Exhibiting interests in an obsessive manner.
  • Repetitive motions like hand flapping, rocking their body, or spinning in circles.
  • Reacting oddly to the taste, smell, texture, appearance, or sound of everyday things.

Regular visits to a pediatrician can help identify any areas of concern with regard to typical developmental milestones.

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Varying Patterns Of Cognitive Skills In Kids With Autism

The children with autism all exhibited varying patterns of cognitive strengths and weaknesses based on these tests, the study showed. Importantly and in contrast to other studies, many children with autism showed improvement in certain skills over time. For example, most of the children were better able to appreciate other’s thoughts and feelings and could better regulate and control their behavior as they grew older.

âThese findings are immensely encouraging for parents,â study author Liz Pellicano, PhD, of the Centre for Research in Autism and Education at the Institute of Education in London, says in an email to WebMD. âMy study is important in that it shows instead that the cognitive skills of children with autism are not static, but change and, in most cases, improve over time,â she says. âThey also show that there is not one trajectory of autism. The extent to which childrenâs cognitive skills improved was not the same for every child, with some children showing greater progress than others.â

Autism Diagnosis And Prevalence

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Autism diagnosis has traditionally been most common in childhood, when differences from neurotypical peers may first become obvious. However, in recent years, there has been a significant increase in the rate of adult diagnosis, particularly as diagnostic criteria have been broadened such that individuals who may not have received an autism diagnosis in childhood may now meet current diagnostic criteria . Note: we use autism to refer to the clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, as some members of the autism community feel the label disorder produces stigma and emphasises the difficulties associated with autism while minimising the strengths. For similar reasons, we use identity-first language throughout to respect the preferences of a majority of autistic people . Changes to diagnostic criteria which are linked to an increase in overall diagnostic levels include the integration of previously separate diagnostic categories into one autism spectrum disorder category . There have been many studies examining the needs and experiences of individuals who seek an autism diagnosis in adulthood . In particular, there has been a focus on the difficulties experienced by autistic women in obtaining autism diagnoses, for reasons which will be discussed in greater detail below.

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Autism And Theory Of Mind

Theory of mind is the ability to understand that others do not share the same thoughts and feelings that we do. It is also being able to recognize that others have their own thoughts and feelings, and understanding how they affect their behavior as well as our own. It usually emerges around age 4, but its foundation begins in infancy.

Because of delayed or absent ToM, children with ASD may believe that others know what they are thinking or feeling, and have trouble seeing things from others perspective.

Challenges with ToM are a main reason children with ASD struggle to navigate social interaction.

Associated Medical & Mental Health Conditions

  • Autism can affect the whole body.
  • Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder affects an estimated 30 to 61 percent of children with autism.
  • More than half of children with autism have one or more chronic sleep problems.
  • Anxiety disorders affect an estimated 11 to 40 percent of children and teens on the autism spectrum.
  • Depression affects an estimated 7% of children and 26% of adults with autism.
  • Children with autism are nearly eight times more likely to suffer from one or more chronic gastrointestinal disorders than are other children.
  • As many as one-third of people with autism have epilepsy .
  • Studies suggest that schizophrenia affects between 4 and 35 percent of adults with autism. By contrast, schizophrenia affects an estimated 1.1 percent of the general population.
  • Autism-associated health problems extend across the life span from young children to senior citizens. Nearly a third of 2 to 5 year olds with autism are overweight and 16 percent are obese. By contrast, less than a quarter of 2 to 5 year olds in the general population are overweight and only 10 percent are medically obese.
  • Risperidone and aripiprazole, the only FDA-approved medications for autism-associated agitation and irritability.

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Differences In Certain Domains Of Ed

Aside from the overall low level of ED in adults with ID and ASD, specific deficits can be observed in certain domains. The clear developmental deficits in the domains 8 verbal communication, 6 interaction with peers, and 2 interaction with caregiver are consistent with the diagnostic criteria of ASD. This finding further supports the validity of the SAED.

Moreover, deficits in self-representation domains such as experience of self and dealing with own body were reported in ASD individuals. The delays in experience of self were independent of the severity of the ID and were strongly associated with the presence of ASD. According to Hobson, various aspects of the developing self are important prerequisites for communication and thinking and could be pivotal for the understanding of ASD . Aside from these cognitive aspects about the self, delays also were observed in the domain dealing with the own body. Altered body motion perception and motor abilities are commonly reported in individuals with ASD and could result in mental disorders such as depression or dysmorphic disorder .

Recognizing The Signs And Symptoms Of Autism

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Autism often presents by a childs third year and the symptoms are present throughout the childs lifetime. While symptoms can improve over time, this is often the result of early, aggressive intervention and therapeutic techniques designed to assist autistic individuals with social and communication skills.

Some symptoms may appear within the first few months after birth, but others may not make an appearance until twenty-four months of age or later.

Some children with autism experience development and milestones that are within normal ranges until around eighteen months to two years of age. At that point, new skills are no longer gained when they should be, and skills that have been developed may suddenly no longer be present.

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Testing The Hypothesis Of Differences Between The Asd And The Td Groups Corresponding To Differences On The Sceb Scores

A comparison of differences on the 16 domains SCEB scores was conducted independently for the four groups. Then, the number of cases in which a difference was observed was compared between the groups. Median developmental level scores in domains on the SCEB for four groups are presented in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Profiles of median developmental level scores in all the 16 cognitive and socio-emotional domains on SCEB, for the three groups and for French children with ASD as well as the typical development groups from Algeria and Brazil. Legend: Socio-emotional domains: BR, Behavior Regulation, SI, Social Interaction, JA, Joint Attention, EL, Expressive Language RL, Receptive Language VI, Vocal Imitation GI, Gestural Imitation AR, Affective Relation EE, Emotional Expression. Cognitive domains: SI, Self-Image SP, Symbolic Play Sch, Object relation schemata OC, Operational Causality ME, MeansEnds SR, Spatial Relations OP, Object Permanence.

The results show significant differences between scores on the 16 SCEB domains for each group, with lower effect for the typical group .

The results of the pairwise comparisons using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test with a probability adjustment according to the Bonferroni method are used to compare the number of significant differences between the SCEB scores between the groups. The number of cases in which a difference was observed was compared between the groups using the ² test .

A Primary Social Cognitive Impairment

Within the history of autism research, there have been changing views about what should be considered to be the primary impairment. Kanner originally proposed in 1943 that an affective disturbance of children with autism was the primary impairment . There followed a period in which sensory-perceptual and repetitive motor behaviour impairments were considered to be key factors leading to the cognitive hypothesis by Hermelin and OConnor in the 1970s that children with autism have difficulty in recruiting sensory input to make perceptual discriminations .

The arrival of domain-specific social cognitive theories changed this focus, postulating a primary impairment of cognition specifically in the social domain described as a theory of mind or mentalizing impairment. This approach focused a growing new interest in cognitive explanations of autism more generally , towards a more specific account that targeted the core social and communication symptoms. This approach also had appeal for the goal of vertical integration in setting out an agenda that could causally connect diverse biological abnormalities to clinical behavioural symptoms by means of a simple cognitive mechanism designed for inferring mental states . Currently, the theory of mind impairment still continues to be proposed as an important cognitive mechanism that can explain some key social communication functioning difficulties of autism .

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Asperger S Syndrome Among Other Autistic Spectrum Disorders

Spectrum Disorders The autism spectrum disorder is neurobehavioral deterioration that involves language developmental disorder combined with low social interaction skills and repetitive behaviors. The severity of the disorder varies from mild, moderate, and severe, and the diagnosis tends to be changeable according to several factors such as the severity and the kind of therapy that the child received during early years. There is an increased prevalence of the disorder among children within the last decade

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Best Known For Difficulties In Social Interaction And Communication Autism Is Thought To Arise From Mishaps In Brain Wiring During Development

Autism and IQ Scores | Can It Coexist with an Intellectual Disability?

It depends on what kind of autism you have. 30 august, 2019 by babysparks in cognitive. Cognitive theories help us to develop a deeper understanding of how an individual might cognitive theories: How autism spectrum disorder affects learning and development. There is no cure for asd. Autistic spectrum disorders are disorders that affect many aspects of thinking and learning. Presently however, the developmental effects of these cognitive theories have been largely overlooked . The development of core cognitive skills in autism: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and social interaction and the presence of restricted, repetitive behaviors. For more information on autism and how you can get involved, visit. Several factors may influence the development of autism, and. Because autism affects the senses, some everyday sounds or smells may be unbearable to these doctors will evaluate the child for neurologic or genetic problems, as well as for cognitive and learn more about autism now. Read chapter 7 cognitive development:

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Some Of The Cognitive Characteristics In The Autism Spectrum

The autism spectrum includes a number of conditions including Autistic Disorder and Aspergers. In this post I will use the term autism.

There seems to be controversy about whether autism is a disorder of development and therefore represents a bunch of abnormal characteristics or whether it is a separate cognitive phenotype that represents a different way of communicating and interacting with the world. It may be that autism researchers still need to answer this question. However, as a clinician I prefer the latter concept because it allows autism to be sold much more positively. Michelle Dawsons blog provides good examples of a positive world view of autism.

This blog aims to provide a brief summary of some of the cognitive characteristics that are common in autism. It is by no means an exhaustive list. I have selected some of those things I have seen in autists that are most relevant for the education content.

Theory of Mind

Autists are described as having poor theory of mind. Essentially, this means that they have difficulty understanding other peoples perspectives or getting inside their heads. Another way of putting it that seems to appeal to some individuals with autism is that they lack social recognition software. They lack the ability to recognise social situations and what is going on in those situations, what the appropriate responses to people might be, and the awareness of why people respond to their behaviour in certain ways.

Cognitive Inflexibility

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