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How Does Autism Affect The Brain

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The Cause Of Autism Is Unknown

Autism & Pediatric Diseases : What Parts of the Brain Does Autism Affect?

It was once thought that poor parenting caused autism. This isdefinitely not true. Although the cause of autism is unclear, it is knownthat genetics do play a role. The disorder is seen often in identicaltwins: different studies have shown that if one identical twin has autismthen there is a 63-98% chance that the other twin will have it. Fornon-identical twins , the chanceis between 0-10% that both twins will develop autism. The chance thatsiblings will be affected by autism is about 3%.

Chance that both people will develop autism:



Autism appears to be associated with other chromosomal abnormalities,such as Fragile X syndrome or brain abnormalities such as congenitalrubella syndrome. A large number of people with these disorders are alsodiagnosed with autism. Furthermore, complicated births, such as difficultpregnancies, labor, or delivery may to contribute to the disorder.

Girls And Boys With Autism Differ In Behavior Brain Structure

A study of about 800 children with autism found gender differences in a core feature of the disorder, as well as in the youngsters brain structures.

A new study shows that there are gender-based differences in the behaviors displayed by children with autism.Altanaka/Shutterstock

Girls with autism display less repetitive and restricted behavior than boys do, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

The study also found that brain differences between boys and girls with autism help explain this discrepancy.

The study, published online Sept. 3 in Molecular Autism, gives the best evidence to date that boys and girls exhibit the developmental disorder differently.

We wanted to know which specific clinical manifestations of autism show significant gender differences, and whether patterns in the brains gray matter could explain behavioral differences, said the studys senior author, Vinod Menon, PhD, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. Knowledge of the difference could help clinicians better recognize and treat autism in both sexes, he added. Understanding this is really quite crucial clinically.

We found strong evidence for gender differences in autism, said postdoctoral scholar Kaustubh Supekar, PhD, the studys lead author. The researchers used two large, public databases to examine nearly 800 children with high-functioning forms of autism in the United States, he said.

Diagnostic Models Based On Imaging Genetics

Imaging genetics in ASD has proven useful, and pathways that include common genetic variation in TD individuals at risk of developing ASD have been characterized. Prenatal transcription regulation and synapse formation in the developing brain is impacted by the genes associated with ASD . Alteration in frontal WM connectivity and structure and disturbance in the frontal, temporal, and occipital circuits involved in visual and language processing was found to be associated with NRXN superfamily genes. Neuropeptide signaling and emotional functioning was found to be influenced by the oxytocin and arginine vasopressin receptor genes via structural and functional modification in the amygdalahypothalamus circuitry. One study showed a relationship between frontal lobe connectivity and common genetic variants in CNTNAP2 using a functional neuroimaging study and the study found that ASD and TD individuals who were nonrisk allele carriers showed more reduction in the activation of mPFC during an fMRI task as compared to risk allele carriers. Another study showed decreased functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex, cortical spinal tract, corpus callosum, and decreased integrity of WM in children and adolescents carrying MET rs1858830, C risk allele. Such studies suggest that the genes affect the brain regions that are involved in social and emotional processing.

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Autistic Adults Can Qualify For Social Security Disability

Sometimes it is easy to tell that a person is disabled. A blind person may have a seeing eye dog or cane. An amputee is missing a leg. A person with a bad back may have difficulty sitting or standing for more than a short time.

Some disabilities are hidden or invisible. You cant tell if a person is depressed or diabetic or asthmatic just by looking at him.

Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication and by unusual behavior patterns such as repetitive activities, pervasive interests, and extreme sensitivity to sounds, textures, lights or smells. However, the severity of symptoms can vary, and no two autistic individuals are alike.

This disorder is included in the Social Security Administrations Blue Book of qualifying conditions under Section 12.10, Mental Disorders. Most adults with autism spectrum disorder will not qualify for Social Security Disability Insurance . In order to qualify for SSDI, you must have held a job for the required number of quarters for a person of your age. Since autism is present from birth, an applicant with a significant work history may find it hard to prove that his disorder affects his ability to hold a job. There is an exception: Adults with autism may apply for SSDI as an adult disabled child if a parent is deceased or receiving retirement or disability benefits.

If you do not qualify as an adult disabled child, you will need to apply for Supplemental Security Income.

The Challenges Of Living With High


Steven Gans, MD, is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.

Autism is a spectrum disorder. This means people with autism have a wide range of symptoms and abilities. High-functioning autism is often considered mild, but thats not necessarily true.

People with HFA can struggle significantly. They may not need the same level of support as people with more severe autism. However, it can still have a major impact on their daily lives.

This article discusses the common challenges of living with high-functioning autism.

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Additional Resources For Autism And Sensory Overload

Autism Speaks, the worlds leading autism science and advocacy organization, along with other prominent organizations, provides resources to help autistic individuals and parents of children with autism or a sensory overload disorder, including the below:

Autism is a lifelong condition for which there is no definitive cure. As a society continuing to learn more about autism, there are more and more ways to help support people who have it. Through early detection, as well as structured support and strategies to minimize symptoms, you can successfully manage the condition so that you or your family member can live a fulfilling life.

Through this guide, we hope that youve increased your understanding of the world of an ASD person, particularly in the areas of noise sensitivities and other sensory overload challenges. We hope that you find the tips, advice and noise solutions for autism presented above to stop sensory overload helpful in managing the condition for yourself or your loved one.

Soundproof Cow team member to learn more about soundproofing a home for individuals with autism.

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What Is The Difference Between Autism And Adhd

Autism and ADHD are sometimes confused with one another.

Children with an ADHD diagnosis consistently have issues with fidgeting, concentrating, and maintaining eye contact with others. These symptoms are also seen in some autistic people.

Despite some similarities, ADHD isnt considered a spectrum disorder. One major difference between the two is that people with ADHD dont tend to lack socio-communicative skills.

If you think your child may be hyperactive, talk with their doctor about possible ADHD testing. Getting a clear diagnosis is essential to ensure that your child is receiving the right treatment.

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Why Are There No Whole Green Cbd Oil Reviews

Willoughby how much cbd oil for severe pain does cbd oil help with autism is about to become a rich and elegant woman, autism one When she got married, she sent her business does cbd oil buying cbd oil card to wait.

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Is she also a secretary No, we don t have any secretaries. is cbd oil legal in south dakota We type, organize our files, and make coffee.

This kind does cbd help with autism of how much cbd oil can i give my 3 year old cover up is very cold and sad, and I understand the reason. I am a rich white man. What oil help autism else does cbd oil help with autism am I looking does cbd oil have any interactions with other drugs forward to Do you want to erect cbd oil and weight loss a monument Should I keep it as a memorial Should the gentleman s fellow tramp send a bunch loris natural foods strongest cbd oil of flowers I don t know what I am expecting. does cbd oil with At the beginning, we considered the issue of does cbd oil help with autism globalization from the perspective of ellis cbd oil sunmed cbd oil the market, then turned to seek products and components, and finally developed to nuns that make cbd oil the stage of mining the intellectual capital of various countries.

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Wilderness Adventure Therapy And Specialized Residential Programs As Treatment For Level 1 Autism

How Does Autism Affect the Brain? Part 1 of 2 | SCIENCE CAFE

Additionally, for teens with level 1 autism, a credible wilderness adventure therapy program, such as Vantage Point by Aspiro, or a smaller residential programs such as Daniels Academy or Black Mountain Academy, can be a highly effective treatment option in helping these individuals improve their social skills, establish healthier patterns, and learn how to make smooth transitions.

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Were Here To Help You Deal With This Unique And Often Misunderstood Disorder

Theres a reason the puzzle piece is a symbol for autism even the foremost experts would agree that they have much to learn as they work towards a greater understanding of the disorder. When youre dealing with a disorder that is not well-understood and a complicated set of legal rules, you need the right attorney on your side someone who not only has legal training, but also has an understanding of autism gained from experience handling cases like yours. At Keller & Keller, we have this experience, and can apply it in your case.

Special thanks to Keller & Keller paralegal Cassie Smith for research assistance.

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Causes And Risk Factors Of Autism

The medical community has yet to definitively explain why autism develops in some individuals and not in others. But there are several risk factors, both genetic and environmental, that have been found to be associated with the disorder, Veenstra-Vanderweele says.

There are other potential risk factors. Prenatal exposure to some medications, premature birth, low birth weight, as well as the age of an individuals parents, may raise the odds. But a lot more research needs to be done to better understand those connections, Veenstra-Vanderweele says.

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Parents and pediatricians need to work together to communicate to everyone the fact that vaccinations do not cause autism, Veenstra-Vanderweele says. Not vaccinating children puts those children at higher risk for diseases and increases the risk of those diseases spreading to others.

Translational PsychiatryJAMA Network Open

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A Challenge To Autism Researchers

A growing body of evidence indicates that serotonin regulates several aspects of brain development, including cell division and differentiation, the growth of neurites on neurons, the creation of new synaptic connections and possible critical periods for development, and what is called activity-dependent plasticity, or when a persons interaction with the world can help the brain develop. Given this understanding of serotonins effect on brain development and the discovery that autistic

children lack adequate amounts of this neurotransmitter during early critical periods of brain development, it would seem that we have a unique opportunity to provide a drug treatment that would help regulate serotonin levels in the autistic brain and help deviating brain development to get back on course.

It would seem that we have a unique opportunity to provide a drug treatment that would help regulate serotonin levels in the autistic brain and help deviating brain development to get back on course.

Although scientists do not yet know the precise mechanisms responsible for this initial bounty of synaptic connections, they do know that changes in levels of neurotransmitters during developmentally critical periods can result in altered creation and maintenance of synapses.

Learn Effects And Balances

Why does it take brains to understand autism?

Learn how a sensory-seeking childs mind will change if you engage them in high-sensory activities often. Some activities, such as playing with building blocks, are relatively harmless. Others, like violent video games, can lead to addiction and social isolation. Work with a professional to create an even balance. Limit screen time and use sensory resources like chewelry and fidget toys to help appropriately tame sensory seeking behaviors.

See if you can work toward appropriate sensory integration, especially activities that involve being with another person. Examples include taking a gymnastics class, where a child would get to jump high on a large trampoline with teammates, or cooking with a parent, where a child would get to smell spices and experience the ingredients first hand while making a dish to later taste.

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Multiple Causes Multiple Effects

One of the biggest problems in succinctly dening autismand consequently in recommending treatmentis that the disorder exhibits such a broad array of characteristics. Autism is dened by the presence of multiple communication, social, and stereotyped behavioral difculties that begin before three years of age. Furthermore, autistic behaviors vary according to both developmental level and chronological age. Problems in communication can range from no language at all to more-subtle language difculties, such as delay in word acquisition or pronoun reversal. Stereotyped behaviors such as hand apping and spinning are typical of young children with the disorder, whereas older, high functioning people with autism often evidence a need for sameness or a focused interest in a particular activity or topic. In addition, many autistic children suffer from a host of other complaints, such as extreme reactions to sensory stimuli that would not bother most people and aggressive or self-injurious behavior.

Despite the diverse causes that may underlie autistic behavior, we cannot exclude the possibility of a few common neurochemical features. One of these may involve the synthesis of serotonin, a neurotransmitter critical to normal development in the brain.

Developmental disorders, including autism, result from errors in the normal sequence and duration of the programs of brain development.

How To Relate To People With Autism

Being able to relate to people with autism requires effective communication including listening and being open-minded. In this article, well discuss a few basic concepts you should understand, tips for smoother communication, and a few things you should avoid if you want to succeed in relating to those with autism.

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Additional Brain Regions Display Likely Secondary Structural And Functional Atypicalities In Asd

Additional brain regions display structural and functional abnormalities in ASD, predominantly visual cortical areas, inferior frontal gyrus and other regions of the PFC, caudate nucleus and putamen in the basal ganglia, hippocampus, sensorimotor cortex, cerebellum, and thalamus . It is suggested that some of these abnormalities are sequelae rather than etiological disruptions.

5.4.1. Visual cortex

See , Box 7.

Visual cortical areas processing motion and ventral temporal cortex subregions have been found by structural neuroimaging to be abnormal in ASD . In addition, functional neuroimaging meta-analyses have reported MTG and FG hypoactivity in social tasks in ASD versus TD controls .

At the neural level, as previously summarized, the amygdala relays strongly and reciprocally with the visual cortex, and these regions engage in recurrent processing . Conversely, amygdala dysfunction caused by surgical lesions in monkey or UrbachWiethe or other diseases in human induces hypoactivation of the visual cortex to emotional stimuli, as well as structural degeneration of it relative to healthy controls . At the behavioral level, social network size in monkeys and in humans has been found to be positively associated with VTC and STS volumes . Moreover, as the monkeys were independently allocated to different sized groups, variations in network size likely drove the variation in visual cortex volumes .

5.4.2. IFG

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Symptoms Of Autism Spectrum Disorder In Adults

Autism Study Shows Link to Brain Overgrowth

Common symptoms of autism in adults include:

  • Difficulty interpreting what others are thinking or feeling
  • Trouble interpreting facial expressions, body language, or social cues
  • Difficulty regulating emotion
  • Trouble keeping up a conversation
  • Inflection that does not reflect feelings
  • Difficulty maintaining the natural give-and-take of a conversation prone to monologues on a favorite subject
  • Tendency to engage in repetitive or routine behaviors
  • Only participates in a restricted range of activities
  • Strict consistency to daily routines outbursts when changes occur
  • Exhibiting strong, special interests

Autism spectrum disorder is typically a life-long condition, though early diagnosis and treatment can make a tremendous difference.

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Brain Functions In Asd

At a neuroimaging level, functional MRI and magnetoencephalography enable the exploration of atypical brain functions of ASD. Many studies have shown that structural differences between ASD and TD are different depend on age. As structural differences are related to different functions of brain domain, it is necessary to observe the brain functions across the human lifespan. According to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, social communication impairments and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, we will review recent studies about the atypical brain functions of ASD based on two core features in age-dependent manner.

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