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Autism Spectrum Disorder Asd

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What Causes Autism Spectrum Disorder

What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder?

There is no clear-cut cause of ASD. Some causes that are supported by research include genetic and some environmental factors. Specific genetic causes can only be identified in 10% to 20% of cases. These cases include specific genetic syndromes associated with ASD and rare changes in the genetic code.

Risk factors include older parental age, low birth weight, prematurity and maternal use of valproic acid or thalidomide during pregnancy, among others. This field of study is an active one for research.

How Is Autism Spectrum Disorder Treated

There is currently no cure for ASD. Autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and medication can help with some symptoms. Educational and behavioral treatments are intended to alleviate and can significantly enhance them.The Autism spectrum disorder treatment plan combines therapies and interventions to address the individuals specific needs. The majority of medical specialists agree that the earlier an intervention is implemented, the better. For an ensuring diagnosis, visit the best Neuro Specialist Hospital In Hyderabad.

Educational/Behavioral Interventions:

Many children with ASD have significantly benefited from early behavioral/educational therapy. Therapists employ highly structured and intensive skill-oriented training sessions to assist children in developing social and language skills which reward positive behaviors while discouraging negative ones. Furthermore, family counseling for parents and siblings of children with ASD can often assist families in managing the challenges of raising a kid with ASD.

Family Therapies

It is one of the autism spectrum disorder cures. Parents and other family members can learn to play and interact with their children to enhance social interaction skills, control problem behaviors, and teach daily living skills and communication to their children.

Medications

The Final Word

What Role Do Genes Play

Twin and family studies strongly suggest that some people have a genetic predisposition to autism. Identical twin studies show that if one twin is affected, then the other will be affected between 36 to 95 percent of the time. There are a number of studies in progress to determine the specific genetic factors associated with the development of ASD. In families with one child with ASD, the risk of having a second child with the disorder also increases. Many of the genes found to be associated with autism are involved in the function of the chemical connections between brain neurons . Researchers are looking for clues about which genes contribute to increased susceptibility. In some cases, parents and other relatives of a child with ASD show mild impairments in social communication skills or engage in repetitive behaviors. Evidence also suggests that emotional disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia occur more frequently than average in the families of people with ASD.

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Signs In Girls Vs Boys

It is well documented that more boys than girls are diagnosed with ASD . Girls who do meet the diagnostic criteria for ASD during early childhood tend to have additional problems . This is not the case for boys .

One reason for the discrepancy in diagnosis may be that ASD traits “look different” in girls than in boys. A diagnostic bias toward characteristic ASD traits as they present in boys makes it easy to miss ASD traits as they present in girls . In addition, girls also tend to have fewer and less unusual repetitive stereotyped behaviors than boys .

The following are differences in the playground behaviors of girls and boys with ASD :

Girls with ASD

  • stay in closer proximity to their peers and are better able to capitalize on social opportunity,
  • spend more time in joint engagement,
  • spend more time talking as a primary activity, and
  • appear to use compensatory behaviors to gain access into peer groups .

Boys with ASD

  • tend to play alone rather than participating in organized games,
  • spend more time alone, and
  • spend more time wandering as a primary activity.

A second explanation for the discrepancy in diagnosis might be that girls without additional problems are better able to cope with similar levels of ASD traits. They may mask their social challenges by using various compensatory behaviors .

Signs Of Autism In Teenagers And Adults

Autism Spectrum Disorder Treatment, Remedies in Homeopathy

The characteristics of autism can affect you differently as you get older you may also recognise some of the signs of autism in children in yourself as an adult. Many people are diagnosed with autism as teenagers or adults based on noticing that they think and behave differently from most other people.

Signs of autism in teenagers

As you age and experience different environments, you might notice different signs of autism.

As an autistic teenager, you might:

As an autistic teenager, you might:

  • find eye contact uncomfortable, or struggle to know how much eye contact to use
  • do well when youre in your routine, but find it difficult when routines change changes might make you feel anxious, make it hard to concentrate, or mean you have to work harder on things itd normally be easy to do
  • struggle to imagine things that you havent experienced before for example, if youre going to a party for the first time, it might be hard for you to imagine what will happen and what youll be expected to do
  • find yourself making social mistakes without realising why for example, during conversations you might not realise there are things other people would rather not talk about, or dont think are important to talk about

As an autistic teenager, you might:

As an autistic teenager, you might:

As an autistic teenager, you might:

Signs of autism in adults

As an autistic adult, you might:

As an autistic adult, you might:

As an autistic adult, you might:

As an autistic adult, you might:

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Getting Evaluated For Autism Spectrum Disorder

Parent interview In the first phase of the diagnostic evaluation, you will give your doctor background information about your childs medical, developmental, and behavioral history. If you have been keeping a journal or taking notes on anything thats concerned you, share that information. The doctor will also want to know about your familys medical and mental health history.

Medical exam The medical evaluation includes a general physical, a neurological exam, lab tests, and genetic testing. Your child will undergo this full screening to determine the cause of their developmental problems and to identify any co-existing conditions.

Hearing test Since hearing problems can result in social and language delays, they need to be excluded before an Autism Spectrum Disorder can be diagnosed. Your child will undergo a formal audiological assessment where they are tested for any hearing impairments, as well as any other hearing issues or sound sensitivities that sometimes co-occur with autism.

Observation Developmental specialists will observe your child in a variety of settings to look for unusual behavior associated with the Autism Spectrum Disorder. They may watch your child playing or interacting with other people.

Lead screening Because lead poisoning can cause autistic-like symptoms, the National Center for Environmental Health recommends that all children with developmental delays be screened for lead poisoning.

What Are The Indicators Of Asd

The main characteristics related to ASD fall into 2 broad areas:

  • difficulty with social interactions and communication
  • restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests

The common signs and traits of ASD in children include the following:

  • lack of social or emotional exchanges like pointing, smiling, showing you things
  • lack of non-verbal communication such as nodding and shaking head, using hand gestures
  • difficulty developing and maintaining relationships appropriate to their age, such as peer play, lack of close friends
  • delayed expressed speech and understanding of speech
  • lack of eye contact when speaking
  • loss of language skills at any age
  • excessively following routines, patterns or behaviour, and becoming distressed at changes
  • stereotyped or repetitive speech
  • using objects in unusual ways, such as rolling wheels before eyes
  • movements, such as flapping hands, toe walking
  • strongly reacting to sensory input such as sound, pain or textures
  • restricted or fixated interests. This might be only playing with certain toys or talking about certain topics
  • having difficulty managing emotions, such as frequent and long tantrums

In adults, ASD traits may include the following:

  • struggling with time management
  • your cultural or social surroundings

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What Is The Difference Between Autism And Adhd

Autism and ADHD are sometimes confused with one another.

Children with an ADHD diagnosis consistently have issues with fidgeting, concentrating, and maintaining eye contact with others. These symptoms are also seen in some autistic people.

Despite some similarities, ADHD is not considered a spectrum disorder. One major difference between the two is that people with ADHD do not tend to lack socio-communicative skills.

If you think your child may be hyperactive, talk with their doctor about possible ADHD testing. Getting a clear diagnosis is essential to ensure that your child is receiving the right support.

What Research Is Being Conducted To Improve Communication In Children With Asd

Autism Spectrum Disorder | Clinical Presentation

The federal governments Autism CARES Act of 2014 brought attention to the need to expand research and improve coordination among all of the components of the National Institutes of Health that fund ASD research. These include the National Institute of Mental Health , along with the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders , the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development , the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences , the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke , the National Institute of Nursing Research , and the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health .

Together, five institutes within the NIH support the Autism Centers of Excellence , a program of research centers and networks at universities across the country. Here, scientists study a broad range of topics, from basic science investigations that explore the molecular and genetic components of ASD to translational research studies that test new types of behavioral therapies. Some of these studies involve children with ASD who have limited speech and language skills, and could lead to testing new treatments or therapies. You can visit the NIH Clinical Trials website and enter the search term autism for information about current trials, their locations, and who may participate.

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Do Symptoms Of Autism Change Over Time

For many children, symptoms improve with age and behavioral treatment. During adolescence, some children with ASD may become depressed or experience behavioral problems, and their treatment may need some modification as they transition to adulthood. People with ASD usually continue to need services and supports as they get older, but depending on severity of the disorder, people with ASD may be able to work successfully and live independently or within a supportive environment.

Diagnosis In Older Children And Adolescents

Caregivers and teachers are often the first to recognize ASD symptoms in older children and adolescents who attend school. The schools special education team may perform an initial evaluation and then recommend that a child undergo additional evaluation with their primary health care provider or a health care provider who specialize in ASD.

A childs caregivers may talk with these health care providers about their childs social difficulties, including problems with subtle communication. These subtle communication differences may include problems understanding tone of voice, facial expressions, or body language. Older children and adolescents may have trouble understanding figures of speech, humor, or sarcasm. They also may have trouble forming friendships with peers.

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Social Communication And Interaction Skills

Social communication and interaction skills can be challenging for people with ASD.

Examples of social communication and social interaction characteristics related to ASD can include

  • Avoids or does not keep eye contact
  • Does not respond to name by 9 months of age
  • Does not show facial expressions like happy, sad, angry, and surprised by 9 months of age
  • Does not play simple interactive games like pat-a-cake by 12 months of age
  • Uses few or no gestures by 12 months of age
  • Does not share interests with others by 15 months of age
  • Does not point to show you something interesting by 18 months of age
  • Does not notice when others are hurt or upset by 24 months of age
  • Does not notice other children and join them in play by 36 months of age
  • Does not pretend to be something else, like a teacher or superhero, during play by 48 months of age
  • Does not sing, dance, or act for you by 60 months of age

List Of Autistic Fictional Characters

What is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?: Defying The Spectrum

This is a list of fictional characters that have been explicitly described within the work in which they appear, or otherwise by the author, as being on the autism spectrum. It is not intended to include speculation. Autistic people involved in the work may be mentioned in footnotes.

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Social Communication / Interaction Behaviors May Include:

  • Making little or inconsistent eye contact
  • Appearing not to look at or listen to people who are talking
  • Infrequently sharing interest, emotion, or enjoyment of objects or activities
  • Not responding or being slow to respond to ones name or to other verbal bids for attention
  • Having difficulties with the back and forth of conversation
  • Often talking at length about a favorite subject without noticing that others are not interested or without giving others a chance to respond
  • Displaying facial expressions, movements, and gestures that do not match what is being said
  • Having an unusual tone of voice that may sound sing-song or flat and robot-like
  • Having trouble understanding another persons point of view or being unable to predict or understand other peoples actions
  • Difficulties adjusting behaviors to social situations
  • Difficulties sharing in imaginative play or in making friends

Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder

In order to determine whether your child has autism spectrum disorder or another developmental condition, clinicians look carefully at the way your child interacts with others, communicates, and behaves. Diagnosis is based on the patterns of behavior that are revealed.

If you are concerned that your child has autism spectrum disorder and developmental screening confirms the risk, ask your family doctor or pediatrician to refer you immediately to an autism specialist or team of specialists for a comprehensive evaluation. Since the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder is complicated, it is essential that you meet with experts who have training and experience in this highly specialized area.

The team of specialists involved in diagnosing your child may include:

  • Child psychologists
  • Need urgent help? .

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    Autistic Traits And Diagnosis

    Autistic traits meaning things that autistic people often do, think, and feel are often shared by people who dont have autism too. This doesnt mean that everyone is a little bit autistic, or that autistic people dont need support.

    To be diagnosed with autism, a person has to have a lot of autistic traits from birth, and those traits need to have a big effect on their life. In order to be diagnosed with autism, those traits must cause what a healthcare professional would call clinically significant difficulties in their day-to-day life. This means that they have difficulties with day-to-day life due to their autistic traits and need to use their own ways of overcoming those difficulties, or the people in their life need to help them to overcome them, or both.

    Being in a supportive environment makes a big difference to an autistic persons wellbeing and quality of life.

    Psychological therapies like cognitive behavioural therapy are often used to treat depression, anxiety, and sleep problems, both in people who have autism and people who dont.

    Psychological therapies can help to manage conditions linked with autism, like anxiety, but psychological therapies arent a treatment for autism itself. Therapy techniques might need to be adapted to work for an autistic person.

    Challenges in daily living

    Possible therapies include:

    Finding the right therapies

    How Is Asd Diagnosed

    2-Minute Neuroscience: Autism

    ASD symptoms can vary greatly from person to person depending on the severity of the disorder. Symptoms may even go unrecognized for young children who have mild ASD or less debilitating handicaps.

    Autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed by clinicians based on symptoms, signs, and testing according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V, a guide created by the American Psychiatric Association used to diagnose mental disorders. Children should be screened for developmental delays during periodic checkups and specifically for autism at 18- and 24-month well-child visits.

    Very early indicators that require evaluation by an expert include:

    • no babbling or pointing by age 1
    • no single words by age 16 months or two-word phrases by age 2
    • no response to name
    • excessive lining up of toys or objects
    • no smiling or social responsiveness

    Later indicators include:

    • impaired ability to make friends with peers
    • impaired ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others
    • absence or impairment of imaginative and social play
    • repetitive or unusual use of language
    • abnormally intense or focused interest
    • preoccupation with certain objects or subjects
    • inflexible adherence to specific routines or rituals

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    Social And Communication Skills

    A defining feature is that autistic people have social impairments and often lack the intuition about others that many people take for granted.

    Impairments in social skills present many challenges for autistic individuals. Deficits in social skills may lead to problems with friendships, romantic relationships, daily living, and vocational success. One study that examined the outcomes of autistic adults found that, compared to the general population, autistic people were less likely to be married, but it is unclear whether this outcome was due to deficits in social skills or intellectual impairment, or some other reason.

    Prior to 2013, deficits in social function and communication were considered two separate symptom domains of autism. The current social communication domain criteria for autism diagnosis require individuals to have deficits across three social skills: social-emotional reciprocity, nonverbal communication, and developing and sustaining relationships. Communication deficits are due to problems with social-emotional skills like joint attention and social reciprocity.

    Older children and adults with ASD perform worse on tests of face and emotion recognition than non-autistic individuals, although this may be partly due to a lower ability to define a person’s own emotions.

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