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Autism Spectrum Disorder Is

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What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Various treatment options will be explained to you if your child is diagnosed with ASD. A number of organisations offer education programs and support services, such as Autism Spectrum Australia. These services can support children with ASD, and their parents or caregivers.

Its best to start treatments early after diagnosis. The right support and programs will improve specific symptoms and social skills.

ASD is a dynamic disorder. Each person with ASD has a unique experience. which is influenced by many different factors. That is why autism is thought of as a spectrum. Treatment programs specifically tailored to individual needs often have the best results.

  • Intensive educational programs and therapies can teach language and social skills.
  • Speech pathology focuses on developing communication and social skills.
  • Occupational therapy can support participation and independence as well as sensory motor development. For example, play skills, fine motor skills and learning how to cope in different environments.

Ensure that the therapies, treatments and supports you choose are informed by evidence. Avoid treatments that offer a cure or recovery. There is no evidence to support these claims.

People with ASD may also have a mental illness. Your doctor can help you to get treatment under the mental health care treatment plan. This provides you with 20 appointments with a mental health professional each year.

You can also attend an ASD support group.

At What Age Does Autism Appear

While autism is present from birth, the signs and symptoms become more apparent as the individual grows up.

In some circumstances, a child as young as 18 months old can be diagnosed with autism, sometimes younger. An experienced professional can typically make a reliable diagnosis around 24 months old.

What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder Psychiatryorg

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  • Summary: Autism spectrum disorder is a complex developmental condition involving persistent challenges with social communication, restricted interests,

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  • Summary: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurological and developmental disorder that affects how people interact with others, communicate, learn, and behave.

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  • Highest rating: 5
  • Low rated: 3
  • Summary: Autism is a spectrum. This means everybody with autism is different. Some autistic people need little or no support. Others may need help from a parent or carer

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  • Summary: The autism spectrum is a range of neurodevelopmental conditions generally characterized by difficulties in social interactions and communication,

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Behavioral Psychological And Educational Interventions

People with ASD may be referred to a health care provider who specializes in providing behavioral, psychological, educational, or skill-building interventions. These programs are typically highly structured and intensive, and they may involve caregivers, siblings, and other family members. These programs may help people with ASD:

  • Learn social, communication, and language skills
  • Reduce behaviors that interfere with daily functioning
  • Increase or build upon strengths
  • Learn life skills necessary for living independently

Getting An Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis

Autism

The road to an ASD diagnosis can be difficult and time-consuming. In fact, it is often two to three years after the first symptoms of ASD are noticed before an official diagnosis is made. This is due in large part to concerns about labeling or incorrectly diagnosing the child. However, an ASD diagnosis can also be delayed if the doctor doesnt take a parents concerns seriously or if the family isnt referred to health care professionals who specialize in developmental disorders.

If youre worried that your child has ASD, its important to seek out a clinical diagnosis. But dont wait for that diagnosis to get your child into treatment. Early intervention during the preschool years will improve your childs chances for overcoming their developmental delays. So look into treatment options and try not to worry if youre still waiting on a definitive diagnosis. Putting a potential label on your kids problem is far less important than treating the symptoms.

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Terminology And Distinction From Schizophrenia

As late as the mid-1970s there was little evidence of a genetic role in autism, however by 2007 it was recognised as one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions. Although the rise of parent organizations and the destigmatization of childhood ASD have affected how ASD is viewed, parents continue to feel social stigma in situations where their child’s autistic behavior is perceived negatively, and many primary care physicians and medical specialists express beliefs consistent with outdated autism research.

It took until 1980 for the DSM-III to differentiate autism from childhood schizophrenia. In 1987, the DSM-III-R provided a checklist for diagnosing autism. In May 2013, the DSM-5 was released, updating the classification for pervasive developmental disorders. The grouping of disorders, including PDD-NOS, autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and CDD, has been removed and replaced with the general term of Autism Spectrum Disorders. The two categories that exist are impaired social communication and/or interaction, and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors.

The Internet has helped autistic individuals bypass nonverbal cues and emotional sharing that they find difficult to deal with, and has given them a way to form online communities and work remotely.Societal and cultural aspects of autism have developed: some in the community seek a cure, while others believe that autism is simply another way of being.

What Role Do Genes Play

Twin and family studies strongly suggest that some people have a genetic predisposition to autism. Identical twin studies show that if one twin is affected, then the other will be affected between 36 to 95 percent of the time. There are a number of studies in progress to determine the specific genetic factors associated with the development of ASD. In families with one child with ASD, the risk of having a second child with the disorder also increases. Many of the genes found to be associated with autism are involved in the function of the chemical connections between brain neurons . Researchers are looking for clues about which genes contribute to increased susceptibility. In some cases, parents and other relatives of a child with ASD show mild impairments in social communication skills or engage in repetitive behaviors. Evidence also suggests that emotional disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia occur more frequently than average in the families of people with ASD.

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Treatment Considerations: Asha’s Position

Several treatment options and approaches lack scientific evidence of validity and are not endorsed by ASHA. They are Auditory Integration Training , Facilitated Communication , and Rapid Prompting Method . Below are brief descriptions of these treatments, along with ASHA’s position on each. Click on the hyperlinks provided to read ASHA’s full position statements.

Auditory Integration Training

Auditory Integration Training is a type of sensory integration treatment that involves exercising the middle ear muscles and auditory nervous system to treat a variety of auditory and nonauditory disorders, including auditory processing problems, dyslexia, learning disabilities, attention-deficit disorders, and ASD. The treatment typically involves listening to specially filtered and modulated music for two 30-minute sessions per day for 10 consecutive days. The objective is to reduce distortions in hearing and hypersensitivity to specific frequencies so that the individual will be able to perceive soundsâincluding speechâin a normal fashion.

According to ASHA’s position statement titled, Auditory Integration Training, “The 2002 ASHA Work Group on AIT, after reviewing empirical research in the area to date, concludes that AIT has not met scientific standards for efficacy that would justify its practice by audiologists and speech-language pathologists” .

Facilitated Communication

Rapid Prompting Method

Symptoms And Red Flags

Autism Spectrum Disorder: 10 things you should know

Symptoms of autism are typically recognized during the second year of life , and can be reliably diagnosed by age 14 months.

  • In the first year of life, the first symptoms of autism spectrum disorder involve delayed language development, often accompanied by lack of social interest or unusual social interactions.
  • By the second year, odd and repetitive behaviors and the absence of typical play becomes more apparent. All young children have strong preferences and enjoy repetition , which can make distinguishing restricted and repetitive behaviors that are diagnostic of autism spectrum disorder can be difficult. This can be distinguished based on the type, frequency, and intensity of the behaviour .
  • Some children with autism spectrum disorder experience developmental plateaus or regression, with a gradual or relatively rapid deterioration in social behaviours or use of language, often in the first two years of life. This is a red flag for autism spectrum disorder.
  • If the loss of skills are beyond social communication or those occurring after the second year of life, then extensive medical investigations and a thorough differential diagnosis should be considered .
  • Sleep disturbances are also extremely common in children with ASD, with the prevalence of sleep disturbances estimated to be as high as 40% to 80%.

Red Flags for Autism

Factors That Rule Out Autism

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Symptoms Of Autism Spectrum Disorder In Adults

Common symptoms of autism in adults include:

  • Difficulty interpreting what others are thinking or feeling
  • Trouble interpreting facial expressions, body language, or social cues
  • Difficulty regulating emotion
  • Trouble keeping up a conversation
  • Inflection that does not reflect feelings
  • Difficulty maintaining the natural give-and-take of a conversation prone to monologues on a favorite subject
  • Tendency to engage in repetitive or routine behaviors
  • Only participates in a restricted range of activities
  • Strict consistency to daily routines outbursts when changes occur
  • Exhibiting strong, special interests

Autism spectrum disorder is typically a life-long condition, though early diagnosis and treatment can make a tremendous difference.

Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism is not a single disorder, but a spectrum of closely related disorders with a shared core of symptoms. Every individual on the autism spectrum has problems to some degree with social interaction, empathy, communication, and flexible behavior. But the level of disability and the combination of symptoms varies tremendously from person to person. In fact, two kids with the same diagnosis may look very different when it comes to their behaviors and abilities.

If youre a parent dealing with a child on the autism spectrum, you may hear many different terms including high-functioning autism, atypical autism, autism spectrum disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder. These terms can be confusing, not only because there are so many, but because doctors, therapists, and other parents may use them in dissimilar ways.

But no matter what doctors, teachers, and other specialists call the autism spectrum disorder, its your childs unique needs that are truly important. No diagnostic label can tell you exactly what challenges your child will have. Finding treatment that addresses your childs needs, rather than focusing on what to call the problem, is the most helpful thing you can do. You dont need a diagnosis to start getting help for your childs symptoms.

Whats in a name?

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Treatment Modes And Modalities

Treatment modes and modalities are technologies or other support systems that the SLP can use in conjunction with, or during implementation of, various treatments. For example, the SLP can use video-based instruction in peer-mediated interventions to address social skills and other target behaviors.

A number of treatment modes and modalities are described below. When selecting a mode or modality, the SLP considers the intervention goal and the individual’s developmental stage. For example, a mode or modality that is appropriate for an individual who is at the emerging language stage may not be appropriate for an individual who is at the prelinguistic stage. The list below is not exhaustive, and inclusion does not imply an endorsement from ASHA.

An AAC system is an integrated group of componentsâincluding symbols, selection techniques, and strategiesâused to enhance communication. AAC uses a variety of techniques and toolsâincluding picture communication systems, line drawings, photographs, video clips, speech-generating devices , tangible objects, manual signs, gestures, and finger spellingâto help the individual express thoughts, ideas, wants, needs, and feelings. AAC can be used to supplement existing expressive verbal communication or with individuals who are unsuccessful at learning expressive verbal communication.

Activity Schedule and Visual Supports

Computer-Based Instruction

Video-Based Instruction

What Is The Outlook For People With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Pin on Autism spectrum disorder

In many cases, the symptoms of ASD become less pronounced as a child gets older. Parents of children with ASD may need to be flexible and ready to adjust treatment as needed for their child.

People with ASD may go on to live typical lives, but there is often need for continued services and support as they age. The needs depend on the severity of the symptoms. For most, it’s a lifelong condition that may require ongoing supports.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Through research, there has been much that has been learned about autism spectrum disorder over the past 20 years. There is ongoing active research on the causes of ASD, early detection and diagnosis, prevention and treatments.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 12/29/2020.

References

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Is Autism A Disability

Yes, autism is a developmental disability, creating differences in the brain from neurotypical brains. Because of the range of these differences, adults and children with autism must be treated according to their unique contexts.

With all this said, its important not to confuse a disability with an illness. While individuals with autism have experiences and challenges others may not, its not a negative diagnosis. We need to empower and support our family and friends with autism, embracing their differences and offering the support they need to thrive and integrate socially and vocationally.

What Is Developmental Monitoring

At each well-child visit, your babys provider looks for developmental delays or problems and talks with you about any concerns you may have about your babys development. This is called developmental monitoring or surveillance. The provider monitors your child as a baby through school age and even later in life if he has problems with social, learning or behavior skills. If your baby has any problems that come up during developmental monitoring, he needs developmental screening.

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Signs And Symptoms Of Asd

People with ASD have difficulty with social communication and interaction, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. The list below gives some examples of common types of behaviors in people diagnosed with ASD. Not all people with ASD will have all behaviors, but most will have several of the behaviors listed below.

Communication And Social Interaction For Autistic People

Autism Spectrum Disorder | Clinical Presentation

Autistic people often have difficulty with communication. They may have difficulty expressing their needs. Some autistic people never develop language, while others might have good verbal language skills.For those who do develop language, they may have difficulties using appropriate grammar and vocabulary, and constructing meaningful sentences. They may misunderstand words, interpret them literally or not understand them at all. Other peoples feelings and emotions can be difficult to understand.

Autistic people can find social skills and social communication very difficult.

This may mean that they appear disinterested in others, aloof or unsure of how to engage in social interactions. They may have difficulty using or interpreting non-verbal communication such as eye contact, gestures and facial expressions, or appear disinterested in the experiences and emotions of others. Establishing and maintaining friendships can be challenging for some autistic people. Some autistic people appear to be withdrawn and can become isolated others try very hard to be sociable, but may not seem to get it right. There is a range of help available, including assessment, education programs and family support.

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What Are The Treatments

Thereâs no cure for Rett syndrome, but treatments can help with a childâs symptoms. They should get these treatments for their entire life.

The best options for treating Rett syndrome include:

Standard medical care and medication. Meds may help control symptoms like seizures, stiff muscles, and problems with sleeping, breathing, the heart, or digestive tract.

Physical therapy. PT and using braces or casts can help children who need hand or joint support or have scoliosis. Sometimes, physical therapy can help them keep moving, sit more easily, walk better, and improve their balance and flexibility. Assistive devices like a walker or wheelchair might also help.

Speech therapy. If your child has trouble talking, this could help them learn nonverbal ways to communicate and socialize.

Occupational therapy. This can boost your childâs ability to use their hands to do things like put on clothes and feed themselves. If they have trouble making repetitive movements with their arms and hands, the occupational therapist might recommend splints that limit elbow and wrist motion.

Good nutrition. Work with your childâs doctor to make sure theyâre eating a balanced diet, which is important for healthy growth and better mental, physical, and social skills. Also ask the doctor what you need to do prevent your child from choking on food or vomiting while eating. Some children and adults with Rett syndrome benefit from being fed through a tube placed into the belly.

Social Communication And Interaction Skills

Social communication and interaction skills can be challenging for people with ASD.

Examples of social communication and social interaction characteristics related to ASD can include

  • Avoids or does not keep eye contact
  • Does not respond to name by 9 months of age
  • Does not show facial expressions like happy, sad, angry, and surprised by 9 months of age
  • Does not play simple interactive games like pat-a-cake by 12 months of age
  • Uses few or no gestures by 12 months of age
  • Does not share interests with others by 15 months of age
  • Does not point to show you something interesting by 18 months of age
  • Does not notice when others are hurt or upset by 24 months of age
  • Does not notice other children and join them in play by 36 months of age
  • Does not pretend to be something else, like a teacher or superhero, during play by 48 months of age
  • Does not sing, dance, or act for you by 60 months of age

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