Multivariate Logistic Regression Analysis For Asd Risk Factors
Based on the potential risk factors we identified in the case-control study from Table 5, we then conducted multivariate logistic regression analysis including those significant factors with P< 0.05 in 2 test, and also extended to those factors that reached statistical trend level . Our results showed that some factors, including maternal age < 20 years and paternal smoking and areca chewing history, had no significant effect. By contrast, the following factors: maternal age > 34 years, use of progestin to prevent threatened abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy, use of progestin contraceptives at the time of conception, and prenatal consumption of progestin-contaminated seafood during the first trimester of pregnancy, had significant effects on ASD prevalence.
Table 6. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for impact factors on ASD prevalence.
Potential Impact Factors On Asd Prevalence
In this study, we have investigated many potential impact factors for ASD prevalence. Based on our present sample, we did not find potential effects on ASD prevalence for the factors of family history of mental diseases, paternal age, paternal personality or maternal personality, but cannot exclude such factors entirely. For instance, there could be insufficient variation in some of the factors to allow for the identification of their contributions. Furthermore, we found small effects on ASD prevalence for the risk factors of pre-term birth , birth asphyxia, maternal age, major stressful life event during the first trimester of pregnancy, paternal smoking and areca chewing history, and maternal abortion history. Pre-term birth and maternal abortion history are usually associated with the use of progestin to prevent threatened abortion , and birth asphyxia is usually directly associated with brain damage due to the hypoxic condition . Maternal age is usually associated with the use of progestin contraceptives, and like the factor of a major stressful life event, it is also associated with high pressure-induced hormone disorder, while the factor of paternal smoking and areca chewing history is usually associated with direct damage of semen from smoking and areca consumption .
Studies Show Vitamin D Reduces Manifestations Of Asd
A study published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines found that children with ASD who supplemented with Vitamin D3 showed improvement in signs and symptoms related to ASD. Amber Tovey, the Program Manager for the Vitamin D Council, sums up the research as follows:
After four months, vitamin D supplementation significantly improved the core manifestations of ASD, which include irritability, hyperactivity, social withdrawal, stereotypic behavior, and inappropriate speech. The placebo group did not experience any significant improvements.
Furthermore, children who received vitamin D supplementation experienced increased cognitive awareness, social awareness, and social cognition compared to those who only received the placebo. Vitamin D supplementation significantly decreased repetitive hand movements, random noises, jumping, and restricted interests.
Recommended Reading: Is Freddie Highmore Actually Autistic
Ever Heard Of Rubella
Epidemiological studies have indicated that prenatal exposure to certain viruses open a pathway for the fetus to develop autism. This include the mom getting herpes, measles and rubella. Rubella is a contagious, viral disease that brings on a low grade fever, sore throat and a distinct red rash. The rash typically begins on the face, then spreads to the rest of the body. Many studies suggest that genetic development causes autism. When the mom is carrying a virus, like Rubella or herpes, the pathway opens up for the fetus to develop autism. Rubella was the first know cause of autism. After more studies it was later proven that a mother with measles or the herpes virus also caused the fetus to develop autism.
Additional File : Table S1
Sequences of primers for the real-time quantitative PCR .Table S2. mRNA level by qPCR in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala from 10 weeks old offspring. Figure S1. Prenatal levonorgestrel exposure does not affect the expression of ER and its target genes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus in 10-week-old offspring. Three-month-old pregnant dams were exposed to LNG , EE , LNG/EE , or VEH by subcutaneous daily injection of 0.1 ml for 21 days until pup delivery. Both male and female offspring were sacrificed at 10 weeks old to isolate the hypothalamus and hippocampus tissues for further analysis. The mRNA levels in the hypothalamus for genes of ER , SOD2 , and ERR , n = 5. The mRNA levels in the hippocampus for genes of ER , SOD2 , and ERR , n = 5. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. Data S1 Statistical details for Fig. . Data S2 Statistical details for Fig. . Data S3 Statistical details for Fig. . Data S4 Statistical details for Fig. .
You May Like: Autism Symbol Puzzle Piece
No Single Birth Factor Linked To Autism
Not every child with autism has a difficult birth. In fact, some have quite normal births, Glasson says. But as a group, autistic children had more birth problems than normal kids did. These problems included:
- Labor of less than one hour
- Fetal distress
- Cesarean section
As a group, autistic children’s mothers gave birth at an older age. And autistic children tended to be firstborns.
None of these problems caused autism, Glasson is quick to point out.
“It is unlikely that the obstetric events found in our study contribute to the development of autism,” she says. “It’s more likely that a number of children who have some of the supposed genes for autism are experiencing more difficulties because of the combination of genes they have.”
Support for this idea comes from an additional finding. The sisters and brothers of autistic children had more birth complications than kids without autistic siblings. But they had fewer problems than their autistic siblings did. This suggests that the normal brothers and sisters inherited some, but not all, of the genes — and shared some, but not all, of the environmental factors — that underlie autism.
The findings add weight to previous data suggesting that the roots of autism extend back to a child’s earliest days, says Opal Ousley, PhD, a research fellow at Emory University School of Medicine.
Special Steps With Pills
Ideally, the techniques above will allow your child to become a pill swallowing expert. If not, there are a few strategies you can try.
One is to have the child swallow a favorite liquid along with the pill. PillSwallowing.org recommends these three strategies.
- Two-gulp method: Place the pill on the tongue. Take one gulp of liquid and swallow it without swallowing the pill. Then, take a second gulp of liquid right away, swallowing the pill and the water together.
- Straw technique: Place the pill far back on the tongue. Then have your child drink the liquid through a straw, quickly. If the child is focused on swallowing their favorite liquid, rather than thinking about the pill, the pill will likely go down their throat.
- Pop bottle method: Place the pill anywhere in the mouth. Have the child seal their lips and mouth over an open drink bottle, and maintain contact between the bottle and lips while taking a big gulp of the drink. This should allow the child to easily swallow both the liquid and the pill.
Another technique is to use food as a method of concealing the pill. Some children who struggle to swallow pills have no problem gulping them down as part of a spoonful of yogurt, applesauce, or peanut butter.
Recommended Reading: How To Explain Body Parts To A Child
Turning On The Microwave
In 2007 a study came out linking the use of microwaves to autism. Microwaves put off what is called “electro magnetic radiation” waves. The same thing cell phones emit, as well as other wireless technology devices. Now, we are not just talking about the use of actual microwaves , but other devices which transmit these waves. This includes baby monitors, wireless routers and cell phones. The study suggested that EMR’s basically prohibit toxins from leaving the cells, due to the EMR’s causing such damage to the bodies cells. EMR’s wreak havoc on a persons cells. When a woman is pregnant and uses a microwave or any device which emits EMR’s the fetus is going to be affected by this, thus making the child more likely to have autism.
Teaching An Autistic Child To Swallow A Pill
Todays Got Questions? answer comes from pediatric nurse practitioner Lynn Cole, associate director of clinical services at the University of Rochesters Division of Neurodevelopmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, one of 17 Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network sites.
My son fights taking pills and liquid medications or supplements, though he likes gummy vitamins. Do you have any tips?
You May Like: Broader Autistic Phenotype
Assessing Whether A Medication Works
When your child starts taking a new medication, you and the professional need to monitor your child carefully.
It can also help if you understand the targeted behaviour or problem before your child starts the medication. Take a week to write down details like when, how often and how long the behaviour happens, and think about how intense it is. Also pay attention to your childs sleeping habits and appetite. This puts you in a good position to notice whether anything is changing once your child starts the medication.
When your child starts taking a medication, try not to change anything else about their routine or therapy program. Then if you notice any changes, itll be easier to tell whether theyve been caused by the medication. You could also ask a family friend it they notice any differences in your childs behaviour.
In Vivo Rat Experiments
SpragueDawley rats were maintained under standard 12-h light/dark cycles and given ad libitum access to food and water. The animal protocol conformed to the US NIH guidelines and was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee from Tongji Medical College and Wuhan University.
Rat protocol 1
Rat protocol 2
Also Check: What Is The Life Expectancy Of Someone With Aspergers
Ethinylestradiol Is An Endocrine Disruptor
Here is how the ethinylestradiol used in oral contraceptives adversely modifies the condition of the oocyte. Bear with me, this is a bit complicated, but if you are woman who uses or is contemplating using oral contraceptives, this information is important to understand.
Ethinylestradiol is a known endocrine disruptor. Anything that disrupts endogenous hormones can be considered an endocrine disruptor. Evidence is emerging that ethinylestradiol may trigger what is called DNA methylation of the estrogen receptor gene. This then causes decreased messenger RNA resulting in impaired brain estrogen signaling in offspring . Lets think more deeply about this.
Methylation means that, by way of a chemical process, a gene is turned on or turned off by an enzyme or protein. Researchers believe that methylation is one of a number of mechanisms by which environmental interactions influence genetic activity. In this case, ethinylestradiol silences or turns off some important processes that are associated with estrogen signaling, namely receptor activity.
To sum this up, durable changes to the function of the cells would be passed on by the aberrant methylation that piggybacks on the normal imprinting mechanism that protects epigenetic markings from reversal or demethylation. Ethinylestradiol, while successful at preventing pregnancy, may be damaging stored oocytes in such a manner that the offspring that emerge from those oocytes carry that same damage.
Eating Out Of Plastic Containers
The use of plastic containers has been linked to causing autism. Some of these plastics have been found to have hormone disrupting chemicals, which can lead to neurological problems for a fetus. People who eat out a lot, especially fast food or out of to go containers, are at a 40% higher chance for their child to have autism.
Phthalates, particularly, which are a group of chemicals used to soften and increase the flexibility of plastic and vinyl are linked to autism. The dangers of phthalates are well known and used to be found in children’s toys, and teething rings. They were removed due to the toxic effects of them. Which makes one wonder why they are allowed in containers we eat out of?
Also Check: Does Nick Eh 30 Live With His Parents
The Rewards Of Successful Medication
In the case of the 10-year-old with an extreme fear of needles, being part of the process to eliminate the fear didnt just make him safer, it actually made him proud.
Parents of children with autism can view the process of overcoming fear and anxiety associated with medication as an opportunity as well as a challenge. Helping your child overcome this fear can improve their self-image, and teach them to confront other anxiety-inducing situations in their daily life.
Here are some resources for further reading on the topic.
- PillSwallowing.com: An Educational Website to Improve Pill Swallowing Skills
Creating A Medication Plan
Healthcare providers usually prescribe a medication on a trial basis to see if it helps. Some medications may make symptoms worse at first or take several weeks to work. Your child’s healthcare provider may have to try different dosages or different combinations of medications to find the most effective plan.
Families, caregivers, and healthcare providers need to work together to make sure that the medication plan is safe and that all medications have some benefit.
Things to remember about medication:
- Healthcare providers and families should work together to help ensure safe use of medication.
- Not every medication helps every person with symptoms of autism.
- One person with autism might respond to medications differently than another person with autism or than people who don’t have autism.
- Some medications have serious risks involved with their use.
You May Like: What’s The Symbol For Autism
How To Teach A Child With Autism To Take Medicine
The time must be right to teach any child to take medicine.
The skill of pill swallowing is the most important for a child to learn. Many medications are only available in pill form or are much less expensive in pill form. Whether your child requires long-term treatment with medication, or simply needs antibiotic treatment to overcome an infection, being able to swallow pills will improve their prognosis and overall health.
According to pillswallowing.org, a service of New Yorks Northwell Health: If your child can follow instructions and is able to manage swallowing chunky, textured foods without gagging or choking and swallows mouthfuls of liquid without it spilling from her mouth or causing coughing/gagging, she should be ready to learn pill swallowing.
Around age 6 or 7, most children have the motor skills, attention span, and ability to follow instructions required to successfully swallow pills. For children with autism, these abilities may take longer to develop. You may want to ask a medical professional for an assessment of whether your child is ready or not.
Once youve decided to teach your child to take pills, here are some techniques to use.
In Vivo Experiments For Rats
Sprague Dawley rats were maintained under standard 12h light/dark cycles and given ad libitum access to food and water. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were monitored for estrous cycles with daily vaginal smears. Only rats with at least two regular 45 days estrous cycles were included in the studies. The females were caged with proven males, and pregnancy was verified by observation of a sperm plug, which was designated as day 0 of pregnancy . The progestin-exposed zebrafish were sacrificed and dried, then grounded into powder and mixed with normal chew in the ratio of 1:1 this mixture was used to feed the pregnant dams. Dams were randomly assigned into 3 groups and fed with different concentrations of progestin -exposed zebrafish food continuously from day 1 until pup delivery for ~21 days. Group 1: 0 ng/L progestin -exposed zebrafish food Group 2: 1,000 ng/L progestin-exposed zebrafish food Group 3: 5,000 ng/L progestin-exposed zebrafish food. The subsequent offspring were used for autism-like behavior testing at 10 weeks old. After that, the offspring were sacrificed, and the amygdala was isolated, flash frozen in dry ice, and then stored in a 80°C freezer for the analysis of gene expression .
Recommended Reading: Is Freddie Highmore On The Spectrum
Aluminum In Vaccines Cause Autism
Disaster Medicine in America
The most alarming public health issue is the relentless increasing autism epidemic. New Jersey reports 1 in 34 children, and about 5 percent of Eight-Year-Old boys affected as of 2014. If this rate continues, half of all children born in 2025 will be autistic according to Stephanie Seneff PhD. Above image vaccine courtesy of wikimedia commons.
What is Causing the Epidemic ?
Our government health agencies, academic medicine and public health institutions have been silent on this question of what is causing the autism epidemic. They merely shrug their shoulders and say we dont know , quickly adding, It is certainly not vaccines.
It IS The Vaccines Aluminum Adjutants in Vaccines Cause Autism
We now have 5 years of medical research, mostly from outside the United States, incriminating aluminum adjuvants in vaccines as the SOLE cause of autism epidemic. JB Handley does a nice job laying out the argument and summarizing this research. He uses the web site, Vaccine Papers, as a good source for the documentation. Many others have raised the red flag on aluminum adjuvants.
Very High Aluminum Levels in Autistic Brains
Revelations about aluminum neuro-toxicity have been made even more urgent by the findings of Dr Christpher Exley who found extremely high aluminum content in post mortem brains of autistic individuals. Left Image Aluminum Foil courtesy of Wikimedia commons.
Plausible Mechanism Has Been Discovered
The American Disaster
Government Expert Witness Confirms Vaccines Can Cause Autism
Sheryl Attkisson reveals in her TV program, Full Measure, that a CDC scientist was silenced by the US government after reporting that vaccines can cause autism. In 2007, Dr. Andrew Zimmerman was the governments top witness in a vaccine-court case, and he testified that vaccines did not cause autism. Now, he says that, during those hearings, he privately told government lawyers that vaccines did cause autism in some children. The Department of Justice immediately had him removed from the hearings and misrepresented his views to debunk claims against vaccines. In 2018, Robert F. Kennedy, Junior, convinced Dr. Zimmerman to document this deception, which he did. Kennedy says that Congress is not interested in rectifying the problem, because most congressmen are financially beholden to the pharmaceutical industry. This program was broadcast on 2019 Jan 6.
Don’t Miss: Who Killed Maddox Ritch