Oxytocin And Other Psychiatric Disorders
Given to its effect on cognition, memory, and social functioning, oxy has been studied in the pathophysiology of a wide range of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, mood, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive-disorders. In the present paragraph we report both preclinical and clinical findings obtained in studies that evaluated the activity of the oxytocinergic system in these disorders.
Both preclinical and clinical literature suggests that oxy has a role in schizophrenia. In mice, for example, it has been demonstrated that the oxytocinergic system is affected and that oxy may explicate its potential antipsychotic effect through the inhibition of the mesolimbic dopaminergic circuit . Moreover, a positive correlation between plasma/CSF oxy levels and schizophrenia has been reported. In particular, it has been found an increase of CSF oxy levels in adult males with paranoid schizophrenia and increased plasma oxy level in schizophrenic patients particularly in those taking neuroleptics .
As far as mood disorders, a large body of studies have examined the implication of the oxytocinergic system in both major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder and the findings suggest that oxy-related physiological functions change in patients with mood disorders.
Antagonists Of Histamine Receptor Subtypes In Asd And Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Several clinical studies revealed the positive effects of H1R and H2R antagonists in children and adolescents with ASD and suffering from behavioral and sleep disturbances . Moreover, numerous preclinical studies improved social behaviors and stereotyped repetitive behaviors of several imidazole- as well as non-imidazolebased H3R antagonists in different rodents , and are discussed below.
Accordance Between Drug Use And Diagnoses
Unwarranted use of medications should be avoided particularly among children with ASD as no drugs prove to be effective against core symptoms of the disorder. Children with ASD often present a complicated mosaic of symptoms reflecting both core diagnostic criteria of ASD, associated symptoms and behaviors, and symptoms of the co-existing neuropsychiatric conditions. Use of psychotropic medications is therefore often difficult to attribute to one particular diagnosis, representing a challenge for pharmacoepidemiological studies.
For stimulants, antiepileptics, and antidepressants we observed a good agreement between prescriptions and diagnoses/indications. A moderate disagreement between use of antiepileptics and diagnosis of epilepsy among girls is possibly explained by presence of non-epilepsy indications, such as anxiety or depression. In the case of antidepressants, the observed disagreement is possibly due to use of these drugs to control repetitive behaviors, or non-core symptoms of ASD. The largest discrepancy between medication use and indication was registered for antipsychotics. We believe that the prescriptions of antipsychotics are driven by the desire to control aggression, self-harm and other non-core symptoms of ASD. Evidence of efficiency of antipsychotics in treating irritability in ASD exists only for specific drugs like risperidone and aripiprazole .
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Familial Linkage Between Neuropsychiatric Disorders And Intellectual Interests
Affiliations Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America, Laboratory of Biological Modeling, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America
Affiliations Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America, Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America
Our Autism And Developmental Disabilities Services
Robert Wisner-Carlson, MD is the lead provider of autism spectrum disorder and developmental disabilities services at the Neuropsychiatry Program. Another key faculty in our program is Andrew Warren, MD, a renowned expert in intellectual disabilities. Our comprehensive offerings include:
- Detailed evaluations: Your loved one receives a complete evaluation where we explore the many possible causes of their symptoms. Assessments often include mental status and neurologic exams. Find out more about neuropsychiatric evaluations.
- Highly skilled team: Our team includes social workers who specialize in developmental disabilities and a psychotherapist specializing in autism. We tailor therapies to meet your loved ones evolving needs and keep their care moving forward. Find out more about neuropsychiatric treatments.
- Research: We are finding new ways to support our patients through research. Our interests include improving transitions from pediatric to adult care in people with autism. We are also exploring neuropsychiatric issues in people with intellectual disabilities.
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Asd As A Prototype For Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Alzheimers disease patients are often found to show apathy, depression, eating, and sleeping disorders, aggressive behavior, as well as other non-cognitive symptoms . These symptoms are usually associated with AD pathology but are often neglected as part of disease progression due to the early and more profound disturbances of memory centers in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. AD comprises up to 80% of all dementias. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in AD are known recently to correlate with gray matter atrophy and, also with white matter damage. WM damage and its relationship with GM atrophy are reported in AD . Additionally, Sokol et al. reported that Amyloid- protein precursor and its metabolites to be dysregulated not only in AD, but also in Autism spectrum disorder , and that the secreted variant of APP may lead to increased brain WM. WM structure is dynamic and is essential to cognitive function . WM is largely composed of glia including microglia and it was proposed that neuroinflammation along with increased myelination, may contribute more to the WM enlargement in ASD . Neuroinflammation appears to be similar in ASD and AD , hence, applying known pathways in AD to ASD as proposed, should provide drug targets for ASD. Therefore, knowledge from better developed field as AD opens the door to better understand ASD.
How Old Does A Child Have To Be To Be Diagnosed With Autism
Diagnosing autism spectrum disorder can be difficult, since there is no medical test, like a blood test, to diagnose the disorders. Doctors look at the childs behavior and development to make a diagnosis. ASD can sometimes be detected at 18 months or younger.
If older children and teenagers have signs of autism, start by seeing a GP. Health professionals will diagnose autism only when theyve ruled out other explanations for childrens behaviour. Signs of autism sometimes become noticeable in school-age children.
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Primary Database Of Neurodevelopmental And Neuropsychiatric Disorder Genes
Our approach used current information concerning genes that have a documented association with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. We used publicly available molecular data to create a comprehensive database of primary candidate genes associated with ASD, XLID, ADHD and SZ. For candidate genes to be included in the analysis, we required evidence of DNA variation including SNPs, insertion and deletions and larger copy number variations. A primary database of 700 genes comprising 361 genes for ASD,, 93 for XLID,, 158 for ADHD, , , , , and 218 for SZ, , , , , , provided a priori information for our analyses . There were 125 genes found to be associated with more than one disorder .
Venn diagram of primary candidate genes associated with four disorders: blue , green , yellow and red . Venn diagram of primary candidate genes and their first degree interacting neighbours in the PPI network. PPI networks of all four disorders showing primary candidate genes and their adjacent neighbours. The AXASPPI network is the union of all four disorder PPI networks. Those genes that overlapped more than one disorder are marked as black circles .
What Is Psychiatric Neurology
Physicians practicing both psychiatry and neurology are overseen by the same organization the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. According to Healthgrades, clinical neurophysiology deals with the complex interactions of mental illness and neurological conditions, treating patients with either or both.
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Autism And Developmental Disabilities Services
Sheppard Pratts neuropsychiatry services for people with autism and developmental disabilities help people ages 18 and older live full, productive lives. We offer exceptional expertise in evaluating and treating problems affecting thinking, behavior, and emotions. And our coordination services help maximize your loved ones independence.
When Do Signs Of Autism Become Noticeable In School
Signs of autism sometimes become noticeable in school-age children. This is because the school environment can be overwhelming and might trigger autism signs or make them more obvious. In particular, children who are later diagnosed with autism might have difficulty with social situations at school.
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Diagnostic Criteria For Pandas And Pans
- Abrupt, dramatic onset or recurrence of OCD
- Acute-onset anorexia and/or severe, restrictive eating disorder
- Concurrent presence of two of the following neuropsychiatric symptoms with severe and acute onset:
- Urinary symptoms
- Sleep disturbance
Additional Signs and Symptoms of PANDAS and PANS
There can be many signs, symptoms, and comorbid diagnoses noted in children with PANS/PANDAS including irritability, personality changes, aggression, uncontrolled agitation, fear about bedtime regimen, fidgetiness, emotional lability, motoric symptoms , sensory defensiveness, impulsivity, depression, dysthymia, ADD, and ADHD in addition to those presented in the graphic below.
Neuropsychiatric Disorder Tackled By Innovative Cell Therapy
Sharma A1, Gokulchandran N1, Shetty A3, Kulkarni P2*, Sane H2 and Badhe P1
1Department of Medical Services and Clinical research, NeuroGen Brain and Spine Institute, India
2Department of Research & Development, NeuroGen Brain and Spine Institute, India
3Department of NeuroRehabilitation, NeuroGen Brain and Spine Institute, India
*Corresponding author: Kulkarni P, Department of Research & Development, NeuroGen Brain and Spine Institute-StemAsia Hospital and Research Centre. Plot 19, Sector 40, Nerul, Next to Seawood Station , Off Palm Beach Road, Navi Mumbai-400706, India
Received: June 28, 2014 Accepted: Aug 04, 2014 Aug 06, 2014
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History And Structure Of Oxytocin
The neuropeptide oxytocin , was discovered in 1906 by Henry Dale, who observed that extracts from human posterior pituitary gland were able to induce uterus contractions in a pregnant cat the name oxy, derives from the Greek words oox, meaning swift birth.
Figure 1. Oxytocin regulatory control of different and complex processes.
In 1984, Ivell and Richter elucidated the structure of the oxy gene , and in 1992 the sequence of the oxy receptor was reported . Oxy is a nonapeptides with a disulfide bridge between Cys residues 1 and 6 that creates a six-amino acid cyclic structure and a COOH-terminal -amidated three-residue tail.
Role Of Neuroinflammation In Autism Spectrum Disorder And The Emergence Of Brain Histaminergic System Lessons Also For Bpsd
- 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
- 2Zayed Center for Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
- 3College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
- 4School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
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Our Neuropsychiatry Offerings For Autism And Developmental Disabilities
We deliver effective care for people with autism and developmental disabilities. Our offerings include:
- Neuropsychiatric evaluations: We accurately diagnose the presenting problem so your loved one can receive effective care and support.
- Personalized treatment plan: Our complete care approach includes a combination of treatments and services to help your loved one live his or her best life. This plan may include brain stimulation procedures or inpatient care if your loved one is in crisis. Find out more about neuropsychiatric treatments.
Histamine And Inflammation In Neurodegenerative Disorders
The possible implication of central HA to regulate neuroinflammation has received some scientific attention, but more recently, the fact that both the HS and microglial dysregulation are involved in a range of neurodegenerative pathologies and neurological conditions, highlighted the importance of HA in the regulation of microglia . Evidence has been pointing to neuroinflammation as a triggering factor in neurodegenerative disorders and cognitive decline. In the brain, histamine can act either as neurotransmitter or as modulator of the innate immune system, hence modulating brain inflammatory responses . Several studies demonstrated the ability of histamine to counteract LPS-induced inflammation through the decrease of microglial migration, phagocytosis and ROS production induced by LPS, as well as the release of IL-1 A recent finding reported microglial abnormalities in HDC knockout mouse, a validated model of TS , which further supported the importance of understanding the role of HA in regulating microglial function, especially as TS and ASD have a high degree of overlap. An in vitro study demonstrated that microglia cells expressed all known HRs . Another experimental study suggested the role of HA in microglial inflammatory response modulation, demonstrating a dual role of HA in neuroinflammation regulation. Activated microglia modulate cell recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine release, such as IL-1 and TNF- .
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Accordance Between Drug Use And Co
There was a relatively good match between prescription of stimulants/ADHD drugs, antiepileptic drugs, and antidepressants, and co-occurring diagnoses for which these drugs are indicated . Of boys with an ASD diagnosis who were prescribed antiepileptic drugs, 94.6% had a diagnosis of epilepsy and 98.1% of boys who were prescribed stimulants had a diagnosis of ADHD. The corresponding proportions for girls were 77.3 and 94.4%. Most of the girls who received an antiepileptic drug because of a condition other than epilepsy had a mood or a pervasive and specific developmental disorder. In contrast, only a small proportion of children who received treatment with antipsychotic drugs had a diagnosis where such treatment is indicated .
Figure 1. Accordance between medication use and diagnosis stratified on gender.
Raising Awareness About Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder
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Epigenetic Treatment Of Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Autism And Schizophrenia
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Incidence Of Asd Diagnosis In 2014
The incidence rate was 1.2 per 1,000 for 217-year-old children. In boys the incidence rate was 1.8 per 1,000 and in girls it was 0.6 per 1,000.
Table 1 shows the number of boys and girls aged 217, divided into three age groups, diagnosed with ASD in 2014 , by ASD subtype. Asperger’s syndrome was the most common diagnosis , followed by autistic disorder and AUA . For both Asperger’s syndrome and AUA more children got the diagnosis with increasing age, while it was opposite for autistic disorder.
Table 1. Number of all 217 years girls and boys with incident diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in 2014 in Norway stratified on age.
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Nationwide Study Of Neuropsychiatric Comorbidity And Medicines Use In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder In Norway
- 1Department of Life Sciences and Health, OsloMet Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway
- 2Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
- 3Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
- 4Nic Waals Institute, Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital, Oslo, Norway
- 5Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Purpose: Autism spectrum disorder has a high rate of comorbidity. While many children with ASD are exposed to psychotropic medicines, their efficacy and safety in these patients are unclear. There is a need for more detailed knowledge on which medicines are most commonly used and for which disorders. We aimed to investigate prevalence and incidence rate of ASD among Norwegian children, and further, among newly diagnosed ASD children in 2014, study the co-occurrence of neuropsychiatric disorders, use of psychotropic drugs, and the relationship between co-occurring diagnoses and use of psychotropic drugs.
Method: Nationwide registry-based study of children 217 years old in Norway.
Results: The ASD prevalence was 0.76% and the incidence rate was 0.12% in 2014. Of the children who received an initial ASD diagnosis in 2014 , 64.8% had one or more co-occurring neuropsychiatric diagnosis. Psychotropic medication use was moderate in general, and low in children without comorbidity . There was a good accordance between co-occurring diagnoses and indication for the prescribed medications.
Reviewdysfunctional Proteins In Neuropsychiatric Disorders: From Neurodegeneration To Autism Spectrum Disorders
Synaptic deterioration gains recognition as an early element of neurodegeneration.
Synaptic pathology is the central element of autism spectrum disorders.
Autism and neurodegeneration share multiple aspects of pathomechanism.
These common elements include protein aggregation and deregulated signaling.
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