Communicable And Noncommunicable Diseases
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Qbri Efforts In The Fight Against Covid
The Qatar Biomedical Research Institute specializes in non-communicable diseases, with a strong focus on research areas related to diabetes, cancer and neurological disorders. Yet, the institute has devoted a considerable amount of its resources and expertise towards fighting the pandemic. In a short amount of time, QBRI was able to develop a diagnostic assay to screen for individuals carrying the virus. This assay is based on real-time PCR and is now being validated. Having such setup at QBRI will greatly assists major healthcare providers in Qatar.
In addition, plans are in place for research collaborations with internal and external stakeholders such as the Qatar Computing Research Institute , Hamad Medical Corporation , the Primary Health Care Corporation , Qatar University and Sengenics Corporation in Singapore. Key collaborative research areas include identification of biomarkers associated with the disease, understanding the pathogenesis of the disease, and exploring therapeutic avenues based on immune response and also increasing endogenous reactive metabolite, methylglyoxal, for antiviral activity.
Directly Observed Therapy Short Course
DOTS is a case management strategy adopted in 1993 by the WHO to improve the effectiveness of compliance with treatment of TB and reduce the increasing global burden of the disease, especially in developing countries, but also in vulnerable population groups in developed countries. The five elements of the DOTS strategy are sustainable government commitment, quality assurance of sputum microscopy, standardized short-course treatment , regular supply of drugs, and establishment of reporting and recording systems . The strategy of DOTS uses CHWs to visit the patient, and observe him or her taking the various medications, providing incentive, support, and moral coercion to complete the needed 68 month therapy. DOTS has been shown to cure up to 95 percent of cases, at a cost of as little as US$11 over the period of treatment per patient. It is one of the few hopes of containing the current TB pandemic.
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The Nature Of Communicable Disease
An infectious disease may or may not be clinically manifested, and therefore it is possible for a person to carry the disease agent without having clinical illness. Acute infectious diseases are intense or short term, but may have long-term sequelae of great public health importance, such as poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis or rheumatic heart disease. Other infectious diseases are chronic with their own long-term effects, such as HIV infection or peptic ulcers. Infections may have both short-term and long-term morbidity, as with viral hepatitis infections. The importance of infectious disease prevention in a global context is shown in . The stages and context of infectious disease include:
- exposure and infection
- clinically manifest disease and its progression
- effects of diseases
- cause of and comorbidity with NCDs
- long-term consequences or sequelae
- social, economic, and environmental factors of communicable diseases.
Success In Eradicating Smallpox
Smallpox is characterized as one of the major pandemic diseases of the Middle Ages, and its recorded history goes back to antiquity. Prevention of smallpox was discussed in ancient China by Ho Kung , and inoculation against the disease was practiced there from the eleventh century CE. Prevention was carried out by nasal inhalation of powdered dried smallpox scabs. Exposure of children to smallpox when the mortality rate was lowest assumed a weakened form of the disease, and it was observed that a person could only have smallpox once in a lifetime. Isolation and quarantine were widely practiced in Europe during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Variolation was the practice of inoculating youngsters with material from scabs of pustules from mild cases of smallpox, with the hope that they would develop a mild form of the disease. Although this practice was associated with substantial mortality, it was widely adopted because mortality from variolation was well below that of smallpox acquired during epidemics. Introduced into England in 1721 , it was commonly practiced as a lucrative medical specialty during the eighteenth century. In the 1720s, variolation was also introduced into the American colonies, Russia, and subsequently Sweden and Denmark.
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Classifying Communicable And Non
Based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization definitions, non-communicable diseases tend to be chronic and slow-motion disorders, because of the time it takes to exhibit signs of the disease . Additionally, non-communicable disease have a tendency to persist for long . Genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, as well as nutritional, physiological and behavioral changes and ageing are all underlying factors when it comes to non-communicable diseases. According to a recent report from the WHO and the Global Burden of Diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, dementia, liver and kidney diseases and type 2 diabetes account for 70 to 80 percent of all deaths in the non-communicable disease category.
Non-communicable diseases are neither contagious nor infectious, meaning that they do not possess the ability to be transmitted from one person to another. A large part of the burden caused by non-communicable diseases can be avoided by identifying vulnerable individuals and having them take preventive measures. These measures include early diagnosis, detection and controlling risk factors contributing to the disease, such as cessation of smoking and alcohol consumption, promoting a healthy diet and engaging in physical activity.
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How Does An Infectious Agent Evolve Into A Communicable Disease
The course of a disease triggered by an infectious agent involves a sequence of interrelated events, termed the transmission chain. The ability of an infectious agent to cause disease depends upon several factors that operate within a vicious cycle. These factors include, but are not limited to nature and the load of the infectious agent, individual vulnerability, the reservoir, mode of transmission, and entry and exit routes.
Connections Between Infectious And Chronic Diseases
Advances in science have opened an entirely new front in public health with prevention of major chronic diseases by infection control. These advances include vaccines to prevent HPV and hepatitis B, as well as control of peptic ulcer diseases caused by the nearly universally present Helicobacter pylori, a major cause of cancer of the stomach. Making links between infectious and chronic diseases has been one of the major advances in public health and clinical medicine over the past several decades, as shown in , which uses data from a CDC review of infectious disease control in 2011.
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How Does Stimming Differ In Autistic People
Almost everyone engages in some form of self-stimulating behavior. You might bite your nails or twirl your hair around your fingers when youre bored, nervous, or need to relieve tension.
Stimming can become such a habit that youre not even aware youre doing it. For most people, its a harmless behavior. You recognize when and where its inappropriate.
For example, if youve been drumming your fingers on your desk for 20 minutes, you take social cues that youre irritating others and choose to stop.
In autistic people, stimming might be more obvious. For example, it may present as full-body rocking back and forth, twirling, or flapping the hands. It can also go on for long periods. Often, the individual has less social awareness that the behavior might be disruptive to others.
Stimming associated with autism isnt always cause for concern.
It only becomes an issue if it interferes with learning, results in social exclusion, or is destructive. In some rare cases, it can be dangerous.
Autistic People May Act In A Different Way To Other People
Autistic people may:
- find it hard to communicate and interact with other people
- find it hard to understand how other people think or feel
- find things like bright lights or loud noises overwhelming, stressful or uncomfortable
- get anxious or upset about unfamiliar situations and social events
- take longer to understand information
- do or think the same things over and over
If you think you or your child may be autistic, get advice about the signs of autism.
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Classifications Of Communicable Diseases
Communicable diseases may be classified by a variety of methods: by clinical syndrome, mode of transmission, methods of prevention , or by major organism classification, that is, viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic disease.
A virus is a nucleic acid molecule encapsulated in a protein coat or capsid. The virus is not a complete cell and can only replicate inside a living cell. The capsid may have a protective lipid-containing envelope. The capsid and envelope facilitate attachment and penetration into host cells, and often contain virulence factors. Inside the host cell, the nucleic acid molecule utilizes cellular proteins and processes for virus replication. Prions discovered in recent years are proteins, which can induce disease. As infectious agents, prions cause a number of degenerative central nervous system diseases, including spongiform encephalopathy in livestock and humans .
The Human Microbiome: At The Root Of Chronic Disease
The human gastrointestinal tract is host to a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, that impart important functions in host nutrient metabolism and energy production, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, immune cell development, maintaining epithelial intestinal barrier homeostasis, immunomodulation and protection against pathogens. Collectively known as the human microbiome, the microbiota consists of a wide range of pathogens, commensals and mutualists, and approximately ten times more bacterial cells than human cells. Microbial diversity is intrinsic to healthy immune maturation and function, and normal microbiota development is contingent upon acquiring the right microbes in the right order during critical windows of childhood growth. The microbiome is essentially the foundation for all body functions and it is now well established that a healthy microbiome is largely responsible for overall health of the host.
The role of the immune system, microglial activation and meningeal lymphatic vessels in autism and chronic disease
In the advanced HIV infection stage, the homeostatic balance between the microbiota and intestinal immunity fails and microbes are able to penetrate the intestinal barrier and gain systemic circulation. Following considerable structural and immunological damage to the gastrointestinal system, this phase of HIV/SIV infection is marked by a persistent inflammatory response by the immune system as a direct
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Incorrect Theories About The Causes Of Autism
While we don’t know exactly why most autistic people are autistic, we do know that at least some of the theories are flat out wrong. Here is the truth about some of the theories that we know to be incorrect.
World Health Assembly Progress On Noncommunicable Diseases And Traditional Medicine
23 May 2014 | GENEVA –The World Health Assembly continued progress Friday, approving plans to better incorporate palliative care, expand inclusion of the needs of those affected by autism, improve access to health care for those with disabilities, better integrate the use of traditional medicine and raise awareness of psoriasis.
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Some People Use Other Names For Autism
There are other names for autism used by some people, such as:
- autism spectrum disorder the medical name for autism
- autism spectrum condition used instead of ASD by some people
- Asperger’s used by some people to describe autistic people with average or above average intelligence
Unlike some people with autism, people with Asperger’s do not have a learning disability.
Some people call this “high-functioning” autism.
Doctors do not diagnose people with Asperger’s anymore.
But if you were diagnosed with it before, this will stay as your diagnosis.
Each Veterinarian Can Play A More Active Role In The One Health Movement
Posted: June 25, 2012, 7:00 p.m. EDT
The human-animal bond connects veterinarians to millions of families, communities and organizations worldwide. Each of us can play a more active role in the One Health movement.
The One Health movement calls for greater cooperation and integration of human health, animal health and ecosystem health sciences. It fosters collaboration at the local, national and global levels to achieve optimal health for people, domestic and free-living animals, plants and the environment. If or when properly implemented, it will help protect and save untold millions of lives in present and future generations.
You can help promote the One Health concept from your exam room, home or community. If you know the common factors that cause disease in people, companion animals, livestock and free-living animals, you can inform your clients, communities and organizations.
At least 60 to 75 percent of human infectious disease agents and emerging human pathogens can be acquired from other animal species. The list includes SARS, mad cow disease, Nipha virus, West Nile virus, avian influenza, Lyme disease and Bartonella , which was recently found to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The U.N. General Assembly met in 2001 solely for an AIDS summit that led to a global fund and a 10-fold increase in funding of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria programs.
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Strengthening Palliative Care As A Component Of Comprehensive Care
Todays resolution emphasizes that the need for palliative care services will continue to grow partly because of the rising prevalence of noncommunicable diseases and the ageing of populations everywhere. The WHO global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 20132020, endorsed by the Health Assembly in May 2013, includes palliative care among the policy options proposed to Member States and in its global monitoring framework.
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Indole And Indole Acid Derivatives
Amino acid metabolism has an important impact on immune cell function. Although endogenous metabolism of amino acids by human play important roles in regulating gut immune function, the potential contribution of resident microbiota should not be ignored. Amino acids that reach the lower part of the gut are transformed by specific bacteria, resulting in the production of specific amino acids with signaling properties. The most abundant amino acid fermenting bacteria in humans belong to the Clostridium clusters, the Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Streptococcus groups, and Proteobacteria.
L-tryptophan is an aromatic amino acid composed of a carbon connected to the 3-position of an indole group. In the human body, several signaling molecules are derived from tryptophan through three major pathways: kynurenine pathway, the serotonin pathway or direct transformation to different indole derivatives compounds such as tryptamine, indole and its derivatives.,, The physiological effect of compounds derived from tryptophan metabolism can be either protective or detrimental depending on the signaling pathway and target tissue involved .
The tryptophan-derived monoamines, tryptamine, and serotonin, stimulate gut peristalsis by signaling through the serotonin receptors in the gut, as discussed above.
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Contagious And Spontaneous Yawning In Autistic And Typically Developing Children
Previous studies have reported the absence of a contagious effect when autistic children view anothers yawning. This result could be due to the difficulty of autistic children in establishing reciprocal gaze behaviour with human partners. Furthermore, the presence of a contagious effect in autistic children could change according their degree of functioning. We evaluated the contagious effect of yawning in both autistic children with different degrees of functioning and in typically developing children exposed to the viewing and hearing of others yawn. Furthermore the frequency and the daily distribution of spontaneous yawning were evaluated and compared among three groups. Autism Spectrum Disorder can selectively affect some behaviour. In autistic children the contagious effect of yawning is largely impaired, whereas the spontaneous production and daily distribution are not. These results support the hypothesis of a link between contagious yawning and social abilities and the existence of different processes underlying spontaneous and contagious yawning.
Microbiota And Gut Metabolites
One of the essential functions of the gut microbiota comprises the modulation of gastrointestinal metabolites, including their synthesis, digestion, fermentation, and secondary metabolism. It has been estimated that over 8000 non-nutritious compounds are present in the human gut, of which most compounds are not digested by human digestive enzymes. Macronutrients and complex dietary fibers that reach the colon, undergo microbial fermentation and catabolism, resulting in the production of essential metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids , essential amino acids, vitamins, and hormones. Although the colon is the major site of this fermentation, the microbiota at other sites, such as small intestine , contribute to regulation of nutrient absorption and metabolism conducted by the host. In gut microbiota dysbiosis, numerous of microbial metabolites are altered. According to the type and concentration of metabolites, host sensing receptors respond. In the following sections, we will highlight key examples of gut bacterial metabolites and how these metabolite shifts contribute to the downstream modulation of host immunity and chronic inflammation in NCDs.
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