Restrictive / Repetitive Behaviors May Include:
- Repeating certain behaviors or having unusual behaviors. For example, repeating words or phrases, a behavior called echolalia
- Having a lasting intense interest in certain topics, such as numbers, details, or facts
- Having overly focused interests, such as with moving objects or parts of objects
- Getting upset by slight changes in a routine
- Being more or less sensitive than other people to sensory input, such as light, noise, clothing, or temperature
People with ASD may also experience sleep problems and irritability. Although people with ASD experience many challenges, they may also have many strengths, including:
- Being able to learn things in detail and remember information for long periods of time
- Being strong visual and auditory learners
- Excelling in math, science, music, or art
How Does My Child Receive An Autism Diagnosis
One of the most important elements of early diagnosis is starting supportive treatments and therapies early. If you believe your child may be on the autism spectrum, it is crucial to discuss it with a specialist rather than waiting to see if they grow out of it.;
At Development Pediatric, we conduct ASD assessments in four telemedicine sessions for children at the age of 18 months or older. Here is a glimpse of what the visits look like.
Diagnosing Autism In Girls
The phenomenon of masking autism symptoms is more pronounced in girls than in boys. Traditionally, girls are more likely to act in very passive ways, to avoid being thought of as troublemakers. What might appear to be quiet and submissive behavior could actually be undiagnosed autism that the girl was born with and did not develop.
Because the symptoms of autism can be as subtle as they are, this means that people who are high-functioning on the autism spectrum can go for years without an appropriate diagnosis, leading to the belief that they developed their autism as they aged.
For example, adults with high-functioning autism can have relatively mild social and communication challenges when compared to people with more recognizable symptoms of autism. This has led many such adults to be mistakenly diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Similarly, many girls with high-functioning autism are also misdiagnosed because their autism does not fit the stereotypes of the disability. No two presentations of autism spectrum disorder are exactly the same, and some presentations are outside the norm.
High-functioning individuals can also be better at hiding the signs of their condition, to better fit in with others or to avoid being bullied or abused.
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Talking With Older Children And Teenagers About An Autism Diagnosis
If your child is in the process of being diagnosed, or has a new autism diagnosis, you might worry about what and how much to tell your child.
Your child will probably have questions about whats going on. These questions can guide what you say just answer them as honestly as you can, at a level your child will understand.
Older autistic children and teenagers often realise theyre different in some ways from other children their age, so dont be afraid to talk with your child about this. You can focus on your childs strengths for example, that your child has an excellent memory, is good with numbers or is very kind to animals. Its also OK to talk about;the things that your child finds challenging, like making friends.
Older children and teenagers will react differently to being diagnosed.
Some might feel relieved to have a diagnosis. They can use the diagnosis as a way to understand parts of themselves and to help with the things they find difficult.
But others might need time to come to terms with the diagnosis or find it difficult to adjust. They might even feel scared. Children who were diagnosed when they were younger have grown up with their diagnoses as part of who they are. But older children can feel confused about who they are now. For example, they might feel conflicted about their newly identified additional needs.
Signs Of Nonverbal Communication Difficulties
- Avoids eye contact.
- Uses facial expressions that dont match what they are saying
- Doesnt pick up on other peoples facial expressions, tone of voice, and gestures.
- Makes very few gestures . May come across as cold or robot-like.
- Reacts unusually to sights, smells, textures, and sounds. May be especially sensitive to loud noises. Can also be unresponsive to people entering/leaving, as well as efforts by others to attract the childs attention.
- Atypical posture, clumsiness, or eccentric ways of moving .
Children with autism spectrum disorder have trouble picking up on subtle nonverbal cues and using body language. This makes the give-and-take of social interaction very difficult.
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Autism Can Be Detected During Toddlerhood Using A Brief Questionnaire
New research led by the University of Cambridge suggests that autism can be detected at 18-30 months using the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers , but it is not possible to identify every child at a young age who will later be diagnosed as autistic. The results are published today in The BMJ Paediatrics Open.
The team at the Autism Research Centre in Cambridge conducted a prospective population screening study of nearly 4,000 toddlers using a parent-report instrument they developed, called the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers . Toddlers were screened at 18 months and followed up at 4 years.
The Q-CHAT is a revision of the original CHAT first published by the same authors in the 1990s. It retains the key items but includes additional items that examine language development, repetitive and sensory behaviors, as well as other aspects of social communication behavior. Each of the 25 items contains a range of response options, allowing for the endorsement of a reduced rate of key behaviors. In effect, this ‘dimensionalises’ each item , allowing for variability in responses and a better understanding of the distributions across the specific traits. The revision was motivated by trying to improve on the accuracy of screening toddlers for autism.
The sensitivity of the Q-CHAT in predicting autism at phase two is 44%, and the specificity is 98%. Results also showed that the ‘positive predictive value‘ is 28%.
Difference Of Autism Signs In Boys And Girls
The symptoms of ASD may range from mild to extreme, and there is no definitive list of symptoms that are sure to be shown by each and every child. On top of that, since boys are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder four times more than girls , classic symptoms may be described in a way to refer more to the boys.
The symptoms are generally the same for the both. But, an autistic girl may be:
- hide their feelings better
- good at imitating social behaviors.
This can make the impairs seem much less noticeable compared to the case of boys. Also, the autism traits in girls are reported less by their teachers.
It is important to note that not all children with autism show all of the signs. In addition, many children who actually dont have autism may show a few of the symptoms and signs. That is why professional evaluation is of utmost importance.
There are certain developmental milestones children reach in terms of their language and social abilities. Caregivers should take notice of these milestones. They should observe children closely during the first few years of their lives. These are crucial times in terms of early diagnosis and intervention. Although not reaching a milestone at a specified time or achieving it late does not necessarily mean that the child has autism, it may be a sign of a developmental delay.
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What Supplements Help With Autism
It is important to remember that as the name suggests autism is a spectrum and a treatment that is highly effective for one child, may not work for another. However early treatments have shown to play a big role in the development of children with autism.;
Before starting any supplement regime, its very important that you obtain guidance from your healthcare practitioner to make sure that you have the correct supplements and dosage. Every person who has autism is unique and will therefore have different requirements.
Here are a few of the natural supplements that have been shown to help ease some of the discomfort associated with ASD. Interestingly, they also help slow aging and prevent many of the chronic conditions associated with age.
Adult Autism And Adhd: Treatment And Interventions
There are currently no studies available on the use of ADHD treatments with adults with both ADHD and autism diagnoses. Most treatment recommendations for adults have been adapted from research on autistic children.
Clinicians, however, generally agree on the supports and therapeutic interventions that matter most to autistic adults with ADHD and which ones increase independence and improve quality of life, as highlighted in a recent paper authored by ASD and ADHD researchers. The recommendations cover pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, as well as behavioral and environmental approaches in work and higher education. They include but are not limited to:
- Cognitive behavioral therapy , cognitive remediation therapy, and similar approaches; specific adaptations may be necessary for individuals with social communication and intellectual limitations. Adults may respond better to group-delivered treatments than do children.
- Therapies focusing on executive function; Flexible Futures is an upcoming program that targets these skills in autistic adults with ADHD .
- Psychoeducation helps to support many patients and families.
Other best practices:
The content for this article was derived from the ADDitude Expert Webinar Do I Have Autism? ADHD? Both? An Adults Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment; with Benjamin E. Yerys, Ph.D., which was broadcast live on May 11, 2021.
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Inflexibility Signs Of Autism In Children
Autistic children are often restricted in their behaviors and movements. They are inflexible, and even obsessive in terms of their activities, behaviors and interests.
- Inflexibility, to an extent, can be an indication of ASD. The following are the signs of inflexibility
- Strict routines – insisting on taking the same route to school every day
- Limited topic of interest – memorizing the train schedules
- Repeating the same actions – flapping hands, rocking back and forth; these are also known as stimming, self stimulatory behavior
- Unusual attachments to objects – obsessively lining the trucks or arranging them in a certain order
- Difficulty in adapting to change – getting upset when their routines are interrupted
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Asd
Every person with ASD is unique, so the timing and severity of the first signs and symptoms can vary widely. Some children with ASD show signs within the first few months of life. In others, symptoms may not become obvious until 24 months or later. Some children with ASD appear to develop normally until around 18 to 24 months of age and then stop gaining new skills and/or start losing skills.
During infancy , a child may show symptoms that include:
- Limited or no eye contact
- No babbling
- Appearing not to hear
- Playing with toys in an unusual or limited manner
- Showing more interest in objects instead of people
- Starting language skills but then stopping or losing those skills
- Showing repetitive movements with their fingers, hands, arms or head
Up to 2 years of age, there may be continuing symptoms from infancy. A child may also:
- Focus only on certain interests
- Be unable to have reciprocal social interactions
- Move in unusual ways, such as tilting their head, flexing their fingers or hands, opening their mouth or sticking out their tongue
- Have no interest in playing with other children
- Repeat words or phrases without appearing to understand them
- Have behavioural issues, including self-injury;
- Have trouble controlling their emotions
- Like to have things a certain way, such as always eating the same food
Possible signs of ASD at any age:
Why Autism Diagnosis Is Often Delayed
In most cases, the first signs of autism appear when a child is 2 to 3 years old. However, some signs are apparent in infancy. Symptoms and signs of autism are different for all children. And all children with or without autism have different skills, strengths, and personalities.
The variables in symptoms and children themselves can make diagnosis difficult outside the hands of an experienced physician. A few common reasons while autism diagnosis is delayed include:
Can Symptoms Develop At A Later Age
Kristys is right, BUT.
In retrospect only, my dd had symptoms at ten months.; HOWEVER, her symptoms were not frequent or pronounced enough to be diagnosed, unti lage six , when she joined a large, loud public kindergarten class, and was expected to process compelx auditory information for the first time.
And the stress of the environment has brought out increased social and behavioral symptoms, as well.; There has been a radical decrease in her eye contact, even at home, recently.; She is more subject to meltdowns.; Her play has become more idiosyncratic.
I’m trying so hard to get help for my son, and like all of you here, I”m hitting brick wall after brick wall.
My son developed normally/advanced as an infant/toddler.; He was speaking in full sentences by 11 mos old.; He is extremely intelligent.; However…
At around 3 years of age, we noticed little things.; He was very hyperactive- whereas I don’t recall this being an issue when he was younger.; Then I noticed that in preschool, he would want to be around other children, but would play alone amongst them.;
Different behaviors would crop up with him.; In kindergarten, he was diagnosed as ADHD, although he seemed to be able to focus on what was being said in the classroom.; He could recite back everything the teacher said, but the rest of the class could not, because he was so distracting.; I would notice that when he became out of control, there was a blank look in his eye- like he wasn’t really there.;
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How To Begin A Diagnosis Process
Adults who suspect they or a loved one might be autistic can do a self-assessment test for adults. A person can find these tests online. While they cannot give a diagnosis, the tests are a good starting point.
A person seeking a diagnosis can take the results of such a test to a primary care doctor who will try to determine whether ASD may be present by:
- enquiring about the symptoms, both current and during childhood
- observing and interacting with the person
- speaking to a loved one
- checking for other physical or mental health conditions that may be causing symptoms
If no underlying physical condition can explain the symptoms, the doctor may refer the person to a psychiatrist or a psychologist to make an ASD diagnosis.
If symptoms are not present in childhood but begin in adolescence or adulthood, this may indicate a cognitive or mental health condition other than ASD.
It may be difficult to find a specialist who can diagnose ASD in adults. Individuals who would like a diagnosis for themselves or a loved one may need to do research to find a provider with experience diagnosing autistic adults.
Another option is to speak to a developmental pediatrician or child psychiatrist who is willing to see adult clients.
What To Do If Your Child Is Diagnosed
If your child receives an autism diagnosis, you might feel overwhelmed and have many questions racing through your mind: Will my child be OK? How will we cope? What does this mean for their future? Where do I even start?
Talk with your pediatrician about services that are available to help autistic kids develop and sharpen their communication, social, motor, and academic skills.
The key is to get educated, find support as early as possible, and have compassion not just for your child but also for yourself.
You also might:
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Signs Of Speech And Language Difficulties
- Speaks in an atypical tone of voice, or with an odd rhythm or pitch .
- Repeats the same words or phrases over and over, often without communicative intent.
- Responds to a question by repeating it, rather than answering it.
- Uses language incorrectly or refers to him or herself in the third person.
- Has difficulty communicating needs or desires.
- Doesnt understand simple directions, statements, or questions.
- Takes what is said too literally .
Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty with speech and language. Often, they start talking late.
Referral For A Diagnosis
Once your GP or health visitor is convinced of your childs difficulties, your child should be referred for a formal assessment . You may have to wait some time before you actually go for the assessment. In the meantime, your child could be referred to other teams such as a speech and language therapy, occupational therapy, oreducation support services. These professionals might help you to better understand your child’s needs.;
Your child should have a multi-disciplinary diagnostic assessment that is, an assessment by a team ofprofessionals. The team might include, for example, a paediatrician, a speech and language therapist and a specialist psychologist.;
If your child is referred to an individual professional, its important that they are experienced in diagnosing autism.;
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Early Signs Of Autism In A 2 Year Old
If you feel like your 2-year-old doesnt seem to be catching up with their development milestones, you may start looking for certain signs of autism spectrum disorder for any delays.Mild symptoms can be mistaken for being shy or the terrible twos.
Here are some red flags that may indicate ASD:
- Doesnt speak more than 15 words,
- Cant walk ,
- Doesnt know functions of household items like fork,
- Doesnt imitate parents actions or words,
- Doesnt use items for their own purposes,
- Doesnt follow simple instructions