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Which Racial Ethnic Group Has The Highest Prevalence Of Autism

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Autism Rates Increasing Fastest Among Blacks And Hispanics

CDC: Number of kids with autism rises

A new study shows autism rates among black children have surpassed rates among whites in most states. Hispanic rates are climbing fastest.

Autism rates among racial minorities in the United States have increased by double digits in recent years, with black rates now exceeding those of whites in most states and Hispanic rates growing faster than any other group, according to new CU Boulder research.

The study, published this month in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, also found that prevalence of autism among white youth is ticking up again, after flattening in the mid-2000s.

While some of the increase is due to more awareness and greater detection of the disorder among minority populations, other environmental factors are likely at play, the authors conclude.

We found that rates among blacks and Hispanics are not only catching up to those of whites which have historically been higher but surpassing them, said lead author Cynthia Nevison, an atmospheric research scientist with the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research. These results suggest that additional factors beyond just catch-up may be involved.

For the study, Nevison teamed up with co-author Walter Zahorodny, an autism researcher and associate professor of pediatrics at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, to analyze the most recent data available from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network.

Autism Statistics By Race And Ethnicity

Minority groups are diagnosed with autism later and less often.

  • The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder is highest in non-Hispanic white children .
  • Autism statistics are the lowest among Hispanic children .
  • Autism prevalence rates in 8-year-olds increased by 10% between 2014 and 2016, and they increased by 175% between 2000 and 2016.

Autism And Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network

The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network is an ongoing, active, multiple source ASD surveillance system established by the Centers for Disease Control in 2000 and conducted in multiple select U.S. regions to provide estimates of ASD prevalence among 8;year-old children. Reports of ASD prevalence are available biannually for birth years from 1992 to 2006, for a total of eight reports . ADDM ASD cases are determined by systematic review and analysis of information contained in existing professional evaluations conducted for developmental health and special education purposes. In some states, ADDM researchers have access only to health records and not education records. ADDM uses U.S. Census-based data for the age cohort denominators needed to compute prevalence. ADDM Network estimates through birth year 2006 were based on the DSM-IV criteria and encompass all ASD subtypes, including Autistic Disorder , Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified and Aspergers Disorder . Over the lifetime of the Network, ADDM included parts of 18 different states. However, the states surveyed are not consistent from report to report and the number of counties referenced in each report is also somewhat variable.

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Why The Increase And Why Is New Jersey The Highest

The New Jersey studys lead investigator, Dr. Walter Zahorodny, an Associate Professor at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, suggests the higher rate in New Jersey is likely due to more people knowing about autism and referring children to experts to document their concerns. These detailed reports then provide the investigators a more complete picture of childrens challenges and possible diagnoses. Without as many reports, other states could be underestimating the rate of autism, he stated.

Certainly, greater awareness and public health education by the government and advocacy groups like Autism New Jersey and our partners contribute to the increase. New Jerseyans also have more access to diagnostic services, so more children are evaluated.

Drivers of prevalence are likely to involve gene/environment interactions, not merely to reflect better awareness which cannot fully explain the increase. Known risk factors such as prematurity, low birth weight, multiples, and advanced maternal age could contribute to the higher prevalence rate. For example, New Jersey has a much higher rate of births to women over the age of 35. The Department of Healths Autism Registry Brief outlines these risk factors for autism and how New Jersey compares to the national averages.; The 2020 report also sheds light on the effects of the 2013 changes in diagnostic criteria. In fact, the current diagnostic criteria yields lower prevalence rates as measured in 4-year-olds here in New Jersey .

Rising Autism Rates Specifically In Minorities And Socially Disadvantaged Children

How does a child experience autism?

Summary:;In the UK, one in 57 children is on the autism spectrum. The number is significantly higher than previously reported. Children from minority backgrounds were up to 38% more likely to be diagnosed with autism. Children with ASD were more likely to also experience social disadvantages.

University of Cambridge

Around one in 57 children in the UK is on the autistic spectrum, significantly higher than previously reported, according to a study of more than 7 million children carried out by researchers from the University of Cambridges Department of Psychiatry in collaboration with researchers from Newcastle University and Maastricht University.

Black and Chinese pupils were 26% and 38% more likely to be autistic respectively and autistic children were much more likely to face significant social disadvantage. The results are published today in;JAMA Pediatrics.

The team drew on data from the School Census from the National Pupil Database, collected by the Department for Education from individuals aged 2-21 years old in state-funded schools in England. Of more than 7 million pupils studied, 119,821 pupils had a diagnosis of autism in their record in the English state educational system, of whom 21,660 also had learning difficulties . Boys showed a prevalence of autism of 2.8% and girls showed a prevalence of 0.65%, with a boy-to-girl ratio of 4.3:1.

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What This Study Adds:

Maternal nativity is a risk factor for childhood autism in US populations. We observed higher risk of severe autism phenotypes in children of foreign-born black, Central/South American, Filipino, and Vietnamese mothers and US-born African Americans and Hispanics compared with US-born whites.

For 2 decades, autism prevalence has risen in the United States and now reaches 147 per 10000 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders by 8 years of age and 21 per 10000 children with autistic disorder ., The associated disabilities are characterized by atypical development of socialization and communication and the presence of restricted, repetitive interests and behaviors beginning in early childhood., Lower ASD prevalence in Hispanic and African American/black children than in non-Hispanic white children and variations in prevalence from 30 to 210 per 10000 among Asians/Pacific Islanders have been reported.,, Autism phenotype differences with regard to intellectual and language disabilities across race/ethnic groups in the United States may suggest differences in ASD etiology and disparities in diagnostic and treatment-related factors.,

Spotlight On: Racial And Ethnic Differences In Children Identified With Autism Spectrum Disorder

ADDM reports have consistently noted that more white children are identified with ASD than black or Hispanic children. Previous studies have shown that stigma, lack of access to healthcare services due to non-citizenship or low-income, and non-English primary language are potential barriers to identification of children with ASD especially among Hispanic children. A difference in identifying black and Hispanic children with ASD relative to white children means these children may not be getting the services they need to reach their full potential.

This ADDM report found that the racial and ethnic differences in identifying 8-year-old children with ASD persist, but also some indications that the differences may be narrowing.

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How Do These Results Impact Families Of Children With An Asd

Overall, when considering the research, it shows that autism rates are continuing to increase in the United States. It is likely that the increase in autism prevalence is due to many factors.

First, autism is increasingly becoming more well-known and discussed by the general public, health professionals, and parents, which helps improve awareness of potential symptoms. Also, there has been an emphasis on increased screening for autism spectrum disorder, as early intervention has shown to improve outcomes.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that potential risk factors are discussed at every well-child visit, with official screening happening at 18 and 24 months. Finally, the diagnostic criteria have widened over the last several years, likely including more children under the ASD diagnosis than before.

Researchers suggest that each of these factors combined have all contributed to the increase in reported ASD prevalence.

This new research is also helpful in that it further highlighted children at a higher risk for autism in relation to gender, socioeconomic status, and other co-occurring diagnoses. This further demonstrates the need for early screening and intervention for children specifically in these groups.

Additionally, the survey results emphasized the difficulties many families with children with autism experience when trying to obtain proper services for their child.

Autism Trends Among 3 To 5 Year

Executive Summary: How You Can Help Keep Federal Statistics on Race/Ethnicity Relevant and Accurate

The race-specific trend curves in the IDEA dataset for 3 to 5;year-olds are shown for all individual states in Supplementary Figure S1. Different states vary substantially in the overall magnitude of autism classification in this young age group, ranging from 1 to 2% in states like California, Massachusetts and Maine and <0.4% in other states like Arizona, Missouri and Oklahoma. The overall nationwide trend among white children shows that ASD prevalence climbed steeply for the 19962004 birth cohorts and then plateaued around 0.46% nationwide between birth years 20042007. After the 2007 cohort, white ASD prevalence resumed its climb, reaching 0.67% nationwide by 2013 .


Race-specific overall IDEA Autism classification prevalence trends tracked among black, Hispanic and white 3 to 5;year-old children, sorted into 3 categories according to the absolute value of white prevalence for children born in 2013: high prevalence>1% , medium prevalence<0.5%<1% , low prevalence>0.5% , and all states nationwide . The number of states in each category is shown in the panel. The total kindergarten population of each race/ethnicity group is listed in the lower right panel. The high, medium and low prevalence panels list the percentage of the total race/ethnicity population that falls into each category. Mean birth year on the x-axis assumes a mean age of 4 in the aggregate 35;year-old age group

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About The Neurodevelopmental Disorders Indicators

Indicators H6, H7, H8, and H9 present information about children reported to have ever been diagnosed with four different neurodevelopmental disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder , learning disabilities, autism, and intellectual disability. The data are from a national survey that collects health information from a representative sample of the population each year.

Neurodevelopmental disorders are disabilities associated primarily with the functioning of the neurological system and brain. Examples of neurodevelopmental disorders in children include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder , autism, learning disabilities, intellectual disability , conduct disorders, cerebral palsy, and impairments in vision and hearing. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders can experience difficulties with language and speech, motor skills, behavior, memory, learning, or other neurological functions.

Indicators H6, H7, H8, and H9 present data on neurodevelopmental disorders from the National Health Interview Survey .

More information about neurodevelopmental disorders and Indicators H6, H7, H8, and H9 is provided in the updated Neurodevelopmental Disorders section of America’s Children and the Environment, Third Edition.

How Race And Ethnicity Affect Diagnosis Treatment And Support For Autistic Children And Adults

Black and Hispanic children are more likely than white children to experience undiagnosed autism.

Bigstock Photo

Recent events have magnified inequities in our society along racial and ethnic lines generally and particularly in areas such as education, as instruction has moved online and become more parent-dependent. As one example, a 2019 study found that one-third of black households lack home broadband service and fewer than half own a computer.;

This disparity inevitably affects autism diagnosis and treatment. Research in the last decade has found that black and Hispanic children are more likely than white children to experience undiagnosed autism, and to have their autism diagnosed later.

The impact of going undiagnosed is self-evident, but even waiting for a diagnosis is significant, as earlier intervention with behavioral treatment is closely associated with better long-term outcomes.

A co-author of a study on racial disparities in autism diagnoses told US News and World Report that the underlying causes are as yet unknown. “There may be various reasons for the disparity, from communication or cultural barriers between minority parents and physicians to anxiety about the complicated diagnostic process and fear of stigma,” said study co-author Dr. Walter Zahorodny, an associate professor at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School and director of the New Jersey Autism Study.

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More Data From A Younger Subset

Since the study began 20 years ago, the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network has been reviewing records of 8-year-olds in New Jersey and across the country and issuing biannual reports on their prevalence findings.; The 2020 prevalence report is from records reviewed in 2016.

In 2014, some of the states, including New Jersey, began studying 4-year-olds. Also issued biannually, the 2016 findings on 4-year-olds released with this report offer a snapshot at an earlier point in time and, therefore, provide a means to monitor progress toward key initiatives such as ages of screening, evaluation, and diagnosis.

White Children Are Still Diagnosed More Often With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism rates rising, affecting more boys, minorities ...

Kate Sheridan Tech & ScienceAutismChildren’s Health

More than one in 50 American children have been diagnosed with a disorder on the autism spectrum, according to a new paper in JAMA on Tuesday, in a finding that suggests diagnoses of the condition have leveled off. The new research also shows that the disorder continues to be more frequently diagnosed in white children than among non-white children.

About 2.7 percent of non-Hispanic, white children have been diagnosed with autism, Asperger’s syndrome or another developmental disorder on the spectrum. Only 1.8 percent of Hispanic children and 2.3 percent of black children have autism spectrum disorder diagnoses; the national rate is 2.4 percent. The researchers used data from the National Health Interview Survey for their analysis; all other racial or ethnic groups were included in a fourth category.

The rate of autism spectrum diagnoses among all children did increase a bit each year between 2014 and 2016; however, these increases were not considered statistically significant. This is the first time in more than a decade that the rate has plateaued.

Maureen Durkin, one of the authors of that study and a population health researcher at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, told Spectrum that differences in socio-economic status may be one reason why children who are black and Hispanic are less likely to get screened for autism spectrum disordersleading to relatively lower diagnosis rates.

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Changing Differences In Identification

While a higher percentage of white children were identified with ASD compared to black children and even more so compared to Hispanic children, these differences were smaller when compared with estimates from previous years. These reduced differences may be due to more effective outreach directed toward minority communities and efforts to have all children screened for ASD.

Prevalence Of Asd In Immigrants

The reviewed studies revealed differences among prevalence rates of ASDs in immigrants . In some reports, the prevalence of ASDs in immigrants and natives was calculated., Various studies reported the incidence rates of ASDs in immigrant groups and natives., Certain studies included odds ratio or relative risk, comparing ASD diagnosis in immigrant groups and natives.,

Most studies revealed increased prevalence rates,, or increased risk, of autism in children of immigrant parents compared with children born in native families. It is noteworthy, that those reports did not include analyses of prevalence or risk of other pervasive developmental disorders than autism. However, certain reports showed increased prevalence of autism and Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS in children of immigrant parents., Few reports also indicate that children of immigrant parents show both a higher prevalence of autism and other developmental disorders such as cerebral palsy compared with children of parents with native origin.

Due to large differences in the methodology of the studies meeting the inclusion criteria, a meta-analysis or other statistical analysis were not performed.

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Race/ethnicity Social Disadvantage And Autism Prevalence

May 7, 2021

The worldwide prevalence of autism spectrum disorder is 1-2%; however, its association with race/ethnicity and social disadvantage is not known. The objective of this study is to determine the differences in ASD prevalence estimates in racial/ethnic minority groups.

This case-control prevalence cohort study included a total data of 7,074,238 pupils. Age and sex were the prior confounders in the study. ASD status was assessed according to race/ethnicity, social disadvantage, and the first language spoken. The primary endpoint of the study was

The findings suggested that among the included participants, 119,821 pupils had ASD, and 21,660 had ASD with learning disabilities. Standard ASD prevalence was 1.76%, with males being at a higher risk than females . Standardized prevalence was the highest in black pupils and lowest in Irish/Roma travelers . It was also found that pupils with ASD were more likely to face a social disadvantage and speak English as an additional language. The social disadvantage was the main factor mediating the effect of race/ethnicity on ASD, with black pupils facing the largest effect.

The research confirmed that ASD prevalence was associated with racial/ethnic groups and was mainly mediated by social disadvantage.

Trends In The Prevalence Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Cerebral Palsy Hearing Loss Intellectual Disability And Vision Impairment Metropolitan Atlanta 19912010

Reporting Data by Race/Ethnicity: Examples from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
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    Affiliation Developmental Disabilities Branch, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

  • Affiliation Developmental Disabilities Branch, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

  • Affiliation Developmental Disabilities Branch, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

  • Affiliation Developmental Disabilities Branch, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

  • Affiliation Developmental Disabilities Branch, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

  • Affiliation Developmental Disabilities Branch, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

  • Affiliation Developmental Disabilities Branch, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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