Adhd: Childhood To Adulthood
According to Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder , more than 75% of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are likely to have symptoms persist into adulthood. Adults may be calmer but still have trouble with organization and impulsivity.
Some ADHD medications that are used to treat ADHD in children can help control symptoms that linger into adulthood. In this article, well go over the different types of ADHD medication, as well as other management techniques.
Stimulant and nonstimulant medications are used to treat ADHD. Stimulants are considered the first-line choice for treatment. They help adjust the levels of two chemical messengers in your brain called norepinephrine and dopamine.
What To Do About Adult Adhd
The MTA study mentioned above shows that while 60% of those studied had ADHD symptoms in adulthood, some were no longer impaired by it. Thats the keyif youre stressed out or having trouble functioning because of your ADHD, its time to seek professional help. You may end up taking the same medication as a child, but the response may be different. For example, you may respond a bit better to amphetamine than to methylphenidate or better to an antidepressant than you did as a child. Also helpful is looking into cognitive-behavioral therapy or coaching from a professional. If you develop good habits for things that can be handled automatically like always putting things in the same place or paying a bill as soon as it comes, you dont have to pay attention to those things, so difficulty in paying attention isnt such a handicap. The good news is that ADHD usually isnt as severe as in childhood, can be manageable with the right help and can be responsive to options not available to children, such as changing jobs. L. Eugene Arnold is a psychiatrist at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and a professor emeritus at The Ohio State University College of Medicine.
How Is Adhd Diagnosed In Adults
ADHD is a disorder that begins in childhood and continues into adulthood. Adults who are diagnosed with ADHD experienced several symptoms of ADHD before the age of 12. As adults, they currently experience at least five persistent symptoms of inattention and/or five persistent symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity. These symptoms must be present in two or more settings and interfere with, or reduce the quality of, social, school, or work functioning.
Adults who think they may have ADHD should talk to their health care provider. Primary care providers routinely diagnose and treat ADHD and may refer individuals to mental health professionals. If you need help starting the conversation, check out NIMHs Tips for Talking With Your Health Care Provider fact sheet.
Stress, other mental health conditions, and physical conditions or illnesses can cause similar symptoms to those of ADHD. Therefore, a thorough evaluation by a health care provider or mental health professional is necessary to determine the cause of the symptoms and identify effective treatments. During this evaluation, the health care provider or mental health professional will examine factors including the persons mood, medical history, and whether they struggle with other issues, such as alcohol or substance misuse.
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Q: How Common Is Adult Adhd What Are The Symptoms And Is It Possible For Someone Who Was Not Diagnosed With It As A Child To Be Diagnosed As An Adult
Tim Cole, Portland, Ore.
A: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or A.D.H.D., is a neurodevelopmental disorder often characterized by inattention, disorganization, hyperactivity and impulsivity.
In the United States, 5.4 million children, or about 8 percent of all U.S. children ages 3 to 17, were estimated to have A.D.H.D. in 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported.
For decades, experts believed that A.D.H.D. occurred only among children and ended after adolescence. But a number of studies in the 90s showed that A.D.H.D. can continue into adulthood. Experts now say that at least 60 percent of children with A.D.H.D. will also have symptoms as adults.
Its not surprising that so many people are now wondering whether they might have the disorder, especially if their symptoms were exacerbated by the pandemic. The Attention Deficit Disorder Association, an organization founded in 1990 for adults with A.D.H.D, saw its membership nearly double between 2019 and 2021. In addition, Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, or CHADD, reported that the highest proportion of people who call their A.D.H.D. help line are adults seeking guidance and resources for themselves.
How Is Adhd Diagnosed
Healthcare providers use the guidelines in the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth edition 1, to help diagnose ADHD. This diagnostic standard helps ensure that people are appropriately diagnosed and treated for ADHD. Using the same standard across communities can also help determine how many children have ADHD, and how public health is impacted by this condition.
Here are the criteria in shortened form. Please note that they are presented just for your information. Only trained healthcare providers can diagnose or treat ADHD.
Get information and support from the National Resource Center on ADHD
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Assessing The Difficulties You Have Now
Youll also need to talk about any difficulties or troubles youve had as an adult. This can include:
- trouble in college studies or work
- difficulties in your relationships
- difficulty paying bills
- frequently missed appointments
Its important to be as honest as you can about any difficulties youve had, even if you dont think theyre related to ADHD.
Your family, spouse, or close friends might also be asked to participate in this part of the evaluation. When you schedule an ADHD evaluation, theres a chance the healthcare professional will ask your permission to send questionnaires to people youve chosen to help provide more insight.
Other people might see difficulties youve missed or be able to recall events from a different point of view. For example, you might think you dont have trouble keeping your appointments straight, but your spouse may say that they always need to remind you multiple times.
This stage of the evaluation is very important because ADHD cant be diagnosed if youre not having significant difficulties. That means you could have multiple symptoms of ADHD, but if those symptoms arent causing problems in your life, you wont be diagnosed with ADHD.
Learning Your Personal History
Youll need to be prepared to answer a lot of questions about your childhood. The physician or mental healthcare provider will want to know answers to questions like:
- What were your grades in school?
- Were you frequently in trouble?
- Did you have trouble with organization?
- Was your room always a mess?
It can be helpful to bring report cards or other records of your school days, if you can get a hold of them. Often, report cards will list not just grades, but teacher comments that could point to ADHD.
In some cases, the professional doing your evaluation might want to contact a parent, guardian, or someone else who can give details about your childhood.
Many adults with ADHD have trouble recalling some events of their childhood. They might downplay their symptoms or the problems they caused, so it can be helpful for evaluators to speak to a parent or have them fill out a questionnaire before your appointment.
You need to have displayed some symptoms of ADHD before the age of 12 to be diagnosed, so this part of the evaluation is very important. In some cases, those symptoms might have changed as you grew.
Your symptoms might not present in the same ways now as when you were a child. However, for most people with adult ADHD, there are clear childhood signs.
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Regular Exercise Is A Powerful Treatment For Adhd
Exercising regularly is one of the easiest and most effective ways to reduce the symptoms of ADHD in adults and improve concentration, motivation, memory, and mood. Physical activity burns off extra energy that can lead to impulsivity. It also immediately boosts the brains dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin levelsall of which affect focus and attention. In this way, exercise and medications for ADHD such as Ritalin and Adderall work similarly. But unlike ADHD medication, exercise doesnt require a prescription and its side-effect free.
Try to exercise on most days. You dont have to go to the gym. A 30-minute walk four times a week is enough to provide benefits. Thirty minutes of activity every day is even better.
Pick something enjoyable, so youll stick with it. Choose activities that play to your physical strengths or that you find challenging yet fun. Team sports can be a good choice because the social element keeps them interesting.
Get out into nature. Studies show that spending time in nature can reduce the symptoms of ADHD. Double up on the benefits by combining green time with exercise. Try hiking, trail running, or walking in a local park or scenic area.
What Are Symptoms Of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Inattentive Type In Adults
According to the American Psychiatric Associations diagnostic criteria, there are nine symptoms associated with inattention. Although nearly everyone experiences inattention problems at times, people with the predominantly inattentive presentation of ADHD frequently experience the following symptoms. These symptoms may intrude and interfere in their daily functioning at work, with family members or in social situations. The nine symptoms associated with the predominantly inattentive presentation of ADHD are:
- Often has trouble staying focused on tasks at work, home or play
- Frequently does not pay close attention to details or makes careless mistakes at work or while doing other tasks
- Often has trouble organizing tasks or activities
- Is easily distracted
- Frequently does not follow through on instructions or fails to complete work assignments, chores or other activities
- Often forgets doing routine chores
- Avoids tasks that require long periods of mental focus
- Often loses items needed to complete tasks or activities
- Does not appear to be listening even when spoken to directly
Adults may have predominantly inattentive presentation of ADHD if they:
- Experience serious or chronic problems due to five or more of these symptoms
- Have no other mental health disorder that could be the cause of these symptoms
- Have few-to-no symptoms of hyperactivity or impulsivity
Other psychological conditions, such as depression or anxiety, can also accompany ADHD in adults.
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Understanding Adhd In Adults
Life can be a balancing act for any adult, but if you find yourself constantly late, disorganized, forgetful, and overwhelmed by your responsibilities, you may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , previously known as ADD. ADHD affects many adults, and its wide variety of frustrating symptoms can hinder everything from your relationships to your career.
While scientists arent sure exactly what causes ADHD, they think its likely caused by a combination of genes, environment, and slight differences in how the brain is hardwired. If you were diagnosed with childhood ADHD or ADD, chances are youve carried at least some of the symptoms into adulthood. But even if you were never diagnosed as a child, that doesnt mean ADHD cant affect you as an adult.
The good news is that no matter how overwhelming it feels, the challenges of attention deficit disorder are beatable. With education, support, and a little creativity, you can learn to manage the symptoms of adult ADHDeven turning some of your weaknesses into strengths. Its never too late to turn the difficulties of adult ADHD around and start succeeding on your own terms.
Recent Studies Suggest That Adhd Can Develop In Adults With No Adhd History But Experts Say That Many Of These People Probably Had Preexisting Symptoms
For decades, the prevailing thinking has held that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition that arises in childhood.1 However, its now understood that ADHD can occur in adulthood. Although these cases have conventionally been thought to be a continuation of childhood ADHD, recent attention in the field has turned to the possibility that ADHD may arise in adults not previously affected by it.
- Recent longitudinal cohort studies suggest the possibility that ADHD can develop in adults without a history of childhood ADHD. Additional research is needed, however.
- Adults with suspected late-onset ADHD may not have met all diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood but likely had preexisting symptoms, experts suggest.
- Clinicians should be aware of the potential for ADHD in adults while ensuring that the symptoms cannot be attributed to another cause such as depression, anxiety or sleep deficits.
Three recent longitudinal studiesconducted in the U.K.,1 New Zealand,2 and Brazil3attempted to elucidate the origins of adult ADHD by tracking its emergence and persistence in cohorts of individuals.
Authors of all 3 studies suggested that childhood and adult ADHD could have different root causes and that adult ADHD may not represent a neurodevelopmental disorder.1-3 However, several adult ADHD experts who provided comments to MedPage Today consider these conclusions to be very premature.
Challenges with ADHD studies
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How Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Inattentive Type In Adults Treated
Although there is no cure for the disorder, it can be successfully treated. There are several different approaches for treating adults, but generally some combination of medication and behavioral therapy yields the best results.
Medications. Prescription drugs that are used to treat ADHD in children usually are effective for most adults with the predominantly inattentive form of ADHD. However, the dosage and frequency of medications may have to be adjusted early during the course of treatment. It is important to match the needs of the person with ADHD with the characteristics of the drug.
The major classes of prescription medications that are prescribed for ADHD are psychostimulants, antidepressants, and nonstimulant drugs. These treatments affect the neurotransmitters that send signals to brain cells.
Coaching is a relatively new approach that has become more popular over the past few years. Coaches help people with ADHD handle the challenges of daily life by providing feedback, recommendations and encouragement, and directing the individual to attend to their own solutions to problems. They also offer practical solutions to address certain issues–such as time management and organization–and help their clients achieve goals.
Tips For Staying Focused And Productive At Work
ADHD can create special challenges at work. The things you may find toughestorganization, completion of tasks, sitting still, listening quietlyare the very things youre often asked to do all day long.
Juggling ADHD and a challenging job is no easy task, but by tailoring your workplace environment you can take advantage of your strong points while minimizing the negative impact of your ADHD symptoms.
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Do I Have Adhd What Are Common Add And Adhd Symptoms In Adults
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts the prefrontal cortex of the brain the area responsible for executive functions, emotional regulation, and impulse control, among other things. Most children with ADHD become adults with ADHD because, though symptoms shift and change with age, they rarely go away all together.
ADHD in adults looks and acts different than ADHD in children, but clinicians diagnostic criteria as outlined in the DSM-5 does not differentiate adult vs. childhood symptoms, which sacrifices the accuracy of assessments. Take this self-test to learn more about the ADHD and ADD symptoms in adults, and then take what you learn to a mental health care professional for evaluation.
What Might I Experience If I Have Adhd
If you have ADHD, you may find that:
- You get easily distracted and find it hard to take notice of details, particularly with things you find boring.
- It’s hard to listen to other people – you may find yourself finishing their sentences for them or interrupting them, or just saying things at the wrong time.
- It’s hard to follow instructions.
- You find it hard to organise yourself – you start a lot of things without ever finishing them.
- You find it hard to wait or when there’s nothing much going on – you fidget and can’t sit still.
- You are forgetful and tend to lose or misplace things.
- You easily get irritable, impatient or frustrated and lose your temper quickly.
- You feel restless or edgy, have difficulty turning your thoughts off, and find stress hard to handle.
- You tend to do things on the spur of the moment, without thinking, which gets you into trouble.
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How Can I Help Myself
Therapy and medication are the most effective treatments for ADHD. In addition to these treatments, other strategies may help manage symptoms:
- Exercise regularly, especially when youre feeling hyperactive or restless.
- Eat regular, healthy meals.
- Get plenty of sleep. Try to turn off screens at least 1 hour before bedtime and get between 7 and 9 hours of sleep every night.
- Work on time management and organization. Prioritize time-sensitive tasks and write down assignments, messages, appointments, and important thoughts.
- Connect with people and maintain relationships. Schedule activities with friends, particularly supportive people who understand your challenges with ADHD.
- Take medications as directed, and avoid use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs.
Possible Emergence Of Adhd In Adulthood
A 2016 study published in JAMA Psychiatry noted that the young adult ADHD population consisted of a large, late-onset ADHD group and a smaller group with persistent ADHD.
The late-onset ADHD group included those without a childhood ADHD diagnosis.
Another longitudinal study, published in the same journal, investigated whether impaired young adults with ADHD symptoms always have a childhood-onset disorder.
The majority of adult ADHD cases involved adults with no history of ADHD, and 87% of adult cases showed late-onset ADHD.
Both studies suggest that ADHD may emerge for the first time in adulthood.
In another study from TheAmerican Journal of Psychiatry, 90% of adult ADHD cases showed no history of childhood ADHD.
The adult ADHD group did not manifest neuropsychological deficits in childhood or adulthood, or polygenic risks for childhood ADHD.
These findings propose that adults with ADHD symptoms may not have a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder.
The late emergence of symptoms may also have implications for genetic studies of ADHD. However, more research is needed to confirm ADHDs first emergence in adulthood.
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