What Are The Symptoms Of Asd
People with autism spectrum disorder have problems in the areas of social interaction and communication. They also have restricted and repetitive behaviours. Symptoms may be noticed in early childhood, or may go unnoticed until children start school and social demands become greater.
Language problems may include:
- Delayed development of speech and language skills.
- Unusual speech in terms of tone or rhythm .
- Repetition of certain phrases.
- An inability to understand metaphors, sarcasm or irony.
Behavioural and social problems seen in children with ASD include:
- Lack or absence of eye contact.
- Solitary play and withdrawal from others.
- Apathy toward other peoples attempts at communication.
- A dislike of physical affection.
- Inappropriate body language.
- Lack of imaginative or pretend play.
- Displays of temper .
- Inflexible adherence to particular routines or rituals and difficulty with changes in routine.
- Overly focussed interests, or a lasting, intense interest in certain topics.
- Repetitive and compulsive behaviour .
- Preoccupation with parts of objects.
Other symptoms may include:
- Repetitive movements, such as hand flapping or rocking. This is sometimes called stimming and may be a way of dealing with stress.
- Unusual postures or toe-walking.
- Unusual reactions to sensory stimuli .
- Restricted eating patterns.
- Sleeping difficulties.
Sometimes children who have previously been meeting their developmental milestones regress and lose some of their language or social skills.
Thinking And Processing Information
Some people may have a rich and creative imagination, but find tasks like organising what they need for the day challenging. Others may experience difficulty recalling recent events, or following lengthy, complicated instructions. This can make actions that require multi-tasking or have a time pressure challenging. For some people, having information about new concepts and tasks presented in a visual way can be helpful.
What Does It Cost To Get An Autism Assessment
The out-of-pocket cost of any assessment will depend on a number of factors, including:
- Whether you are referred to a health professional in the public or private health system.
- Whether you have private health cover and the level of that cover.
- Your personal financial circumstances and whether you are receiving certain Centrelink payments.
You can check with your medical professional directly as to any costs involved.
Find out more in our Financial support page.
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What Are Some Of The Benefits Of Getting A Diagnosis
- Getting a professional diagnosis may help you to receive any appropriate funding, support and help you might need.
- Your family, friends and work colleagues may have a better understanding of you and your needs and it may allow them to support you more effectively.
- You may have a greater sense of self-identify if you understand yourself and the spectrum better.
- You may have a better understanding of your experiences as a child or adolescent.
- You may have increased confidence knowing you are part of a larger group of adults that may be like-minded.
Some adults find that by having a better understanding of the challenges associated with autism, they can use their strengths and develop strategies to support these.
Fast fact: Did you know that people on the spectrum commonly show character strengths such as loyalty, kindness, honesty and a lack of judgement?
Common Issues In Adult Asd
People with ASD have a wide range of strengths, weaknesses, skills and difficulties. Common characteristics include:
Social Issues: People with ASD often have difficulty in forming friendships, communication difficulties , and an inability to understand social rules and body language. They are often seen to be weak in empathy.
Anxiety: Anxiety symptoms are very common in adults with ASD and issues coping with change and uncertainty are common.
Anger: Adults with ASD often get easily irritated with other people as they have a poor theory of mind and cannot easily understand why people do certain things. They can appear very judgemental and criticise others for stupidity if things are not done in the way that they think things should be done.
Depression: As adults with ASD get older and realise that they are somewhat different from others, they can feel like they dont fit in on this planet and often complain that they feel like aliens
Cognitive Flexibility: People with ASD often prefer routines and do not cope well with change
Strong obsessions: People with ASD often have strong areas of interest that they like to engage in or read about. They often like to talk to people about these areas and feel like they need to share this information, even if the other person is not interested.
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What Will An Autism Assessment For My Child Involve
Depending on your childs needs, the health professionals you have been referred to will gather information about your childs medical and health history as well as the following:
- Developmental and educational history: you will be asked about your childs development over their lifetime, this may cover a wide range of developmental areas.
- Autism-specific signs and/or symptoms: you will be asked about behaviours relating to social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour.
- Other relevant behaviours, signs and/or symptoms: you will be asked to indicate whether your child has a co-occurring condition and/or differential diagnosis.
Often, health professional will use games, puzzles and activities to measure and observe your childs development.
Fast fact: The health professional may want to see you and your child together first, and then may spend some time one-on-one with your child.
Introducing The National Disability Insurance Scheme
The National Disability Insurance Scheme provides individualised support for people with permanent and significant disability, as well as their families and carers.
The NDIS represents significant reform to disability services in Australia and is underpinned by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities .
The primary purpose of the NDIS is to change the lives of people with disability, their families and carers for the better, enabling them to fully participate in the social and economic life of the nation and to live ordinary lives.
The NDIS website has a wealth of information and we highly recommend you become familiar with the content in depth. In particular, the information around eligibility, access and planning are important.
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What Other Conditions Co
The current diagnostic manual for autism, the DSM-5 notes that 70% of the time a diagnosis of autism is accompanied by an additional condition or diagnosis, and 40% of the time by two or more additional conditions of diagnosis.
These co-occurring conditions can appear at any time during a persons development, and some may not appear until later in adolescence or even adulthood.
Here is a list of key conditions that can occur in addition to a diagnosis of autism.
What An Autism Diagnosis Means For Older Children And Teenagers
You might wonder whether getting and having an autism diagnosis in later childhood or adolescence will make a difference to your child.
The diagnosis itself wont change your child, or the way that you think or feel about your child. But it might help you and your child understand your childs strengths and difficulties.
A diagnosis describes your childs strengths, abilities, difficulties and needs. And it can help to guide therapies and support for your child and help with getting services and funding to support your childs development for example, extra help at school.
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An Adult Autism Diagnosis Isnt The End Of The World
Autism is not a disease or illness, it just means that your brain works slightly differently from other people. You may, however, need;support;with certain things in your life. It may at first be a little hard to adjust to a new lifestyle and treatment. You just have to be patient and work with your health;professional;to get the maximum benefit out of treatment.;
Assessment And Diagnosis For Adults
You may have read or seen something about autism and thought Thats me!, or you may be the parent, partner or friend of an adult whom you think may be autistic. You are not alone. Because of our improved knowledge and understanding of these conditions, a number of adults are now being diagnosed.
Some people in this position choose to see a professional for a diagnosis, while others prefer not to. This is up to the individual. The important thing is to learn as much as you can about;autism, to help you understand that autistic individuals can have a different view of the world around them, and might find socialising challenging.
Even a late diagnosis can still be very important for individuals, both for themselves and their families. A diagnosis can provide a much better understanding of the challenges an individual may face, and opportunities to find supports that can help.
There are a few scenarios where an adult will seek assessment for an autism diagnosis.
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What Has Not Been Shown To Cause Autism Spectrum Disorder
Some parents are concerned that there may be a link between routine childhood vaccinations and autism. The paper that first described a possible link between MMR and autism has since been discredited, and subsequent studies conducted by reputable organisations have not found any evidence of a link between vaccinations and ASD. Unfortunately, some parents remain concerned, which has led to reduced immunisation rates in some areas and several measles outbreaks.
The fact that more children have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder in recent times also worries some parents. The reason for the apparent rise in ASD cases is improved knowledge of the condition and increased awareness. More children may be diagnosed these days, but that doesnt mean that more children are affected than before.
There is no evidence to show that difficulties during childbirth or events during pregnancy are associated with ASD.
Talking With Older Children And Teenagers About An Autism Diagnosis
If your child is in the process of being diagnosed, or has a new autism diagnosis, you might worry about what and how much to tell your child.
Your child will probably have questions about whats going on. These questions can guide what you say just answer them as honestly as you can, at a level your child will understand.
Older autistic children and teenagers often realise theyre different in some ways from other children their age, so dont be afraid to talk with your child about this. You can focus on your childs strengths for example, that your child has an excellent memory, is good with numbers or is very kind to animals. Its also OK to talk about;the things that your child finds challenging, like making friends.
Older children and teenagers will react differently to being diagnosed.
Some might feel relieved to have a diagnosis. They can use the diagnosis as a way to understand parts of themselves and to help with the things they find difficult.
But others might need time to come to terms with the diagnosis or find it difficult to adjust. They might even feel scared. Children who were diagnosed when they were younger have grown up with their diagnoses as part of who they are. But older children can feel confused about who they are now. For example, they might feel conflicted about their newly identified additional needs.
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Getting Tested For Autism As An Adult
We mentioned in the introduction that getting an autism test as an adult was complicated. This is in fact true. At the moment there are no standard diagnostic criteria for adults with ASD. However, with advancements in research and awareness for the disorder growing, we can expect to see one in the near future. That being said, most medical health professionals who diagnose autism do not stick to one type of test, instead, they use a series of in-person interactions and observations.
Furthermore, if you were to do a simple google search on autism testing for adults, you will probably find so many online tests that claim to provide a diagnosis. However, the accuracy of these tests is questionable. We recommend that you see an expert if you are convinced that you have autism or if you have any symptoms.
Financial Help For Families
There are several programs and services in Australia that are available to give financial assistance to families affected by autism spectrum disorder.
- Funding is available through Medicare under the Helping Children with Autism program. This program helps improve access to speech pathologists, occupational therapists and psychologists, as well as paediatricians or psychiatrists for both assessment and treatment. To obtain this package, your child needs to be younger than 13 years at the time of initial assessment and referred to a psychiatrist or paediatrician for this service by your general practitioner .
- State and territory governments help fund services and support for children under school age with ASD through Early Intervention Services.
- Many people with autism spectrum disorder can access disability support services through the the National Disability Insurance Scheme .
- The Australian Government also offers respite care and carer payments or allowances for carers of children with ASD.
- Government-funded counselling and support are also available for carers, to help reduce stress and improve coping skills.
Talk to your childs treatment team for more information.
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What Happens During A Child’s Autism Assessment
Observation and interaction are key elements of an autism assessment for a child.
At Autism SA, they take place with a member of the Diagnostic Team in a dedicated space featuring a range of games and toys that may be used as part of the assessment. While this occurs, parents or carers are interviewed in an adjoining room and detailed information about their childs development and current patterns of behaviour is recorded.
Assessments are videoed to enable members of the team not present in the room to observe and contribute to the findings.
During an assessment, we are looking for specific characteristics and behaviours that are likely to indicate whether or not a child is on the autism spectrum.; Assessments may look unstructured, but they are being conducted by very skilled professionals who are looking for very specific patterns of behaviour.
Much of what happens during the assessment will actually be led by the child, and this enables the diagnostician to observe a range of behaviours.
In some cases, it may be that the Diagnostic Team will also want to observe a child in another setting, such as at kindergarten or at school.
The time required for an assessment can vary, from between 1 to 2½ hours. Parents and carers will be advised of the length of time it is anticipated will be needed in their appointment letter.
Better Access To Mental Health Care Scheme
The scheme is available to all Australians and we highly recommend you use it for anyone in your family or care where required. In particular if you are experiencing anxiety, depression or emotional strain it can be a huge help.
Many children, teenagers and adults on the autism spectrum take advantage of this program to help fund visits to a psychologist. Many parents and carers also access the scheme and find it very beneficial.
Under the scheme Medicare rebates are available to patients for selected mental health services provided by general practitioners , psychiatrists, psychologists and eligible social workers and occupational therapists.
Medicare rebates are available for up to ten individual and ten group allied mental health services per calendar year to patients with an assessed mental disorder who are referred by:
- A GP managing the patient under a GP Mental Health Treatment Plan; or
- Under a referred psychiatrist assessment and management plan; or
- A psychiatrist or paediatrician
The first step to access the scheme is to see your GP who will assess whether you have a mental disorder and whether the preparation of a GP Mental Health Treatment Plan is appropriate for you.
Information accurate as of September 2018.
Information accurate as of September 2018.
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What Causes Autism And When Do Characteristics Appear
Around one in 100 people;experience;autism.;Its thought that a mix of;genetic;and other environmental factors;change;the way the brain develops: vaccines do not cause autism. Characteristics of autism are usually noticeable in the first two years of life but may not be recognised until later. Some people on the autism spectrum can go undiagnosed into late teens or adulthood, and your sex assigned at birth can also determine how your characteristics present.
Autism First Signs And Checklist For Teenagers
Being a teenager can be hard work at the best of times. Fitting in can suddenly become very important, and trying to negotiate the nuances of social networking can be tiring! Add a bunch of hormones, quick growth and the increased academic demands, and it can be a testing time.
For the teenager who might be on the autism spectrum, adolescence can be a particularly challenging time.
If they havent yet been diagnosed, and dont understand that the way they process the world around them could be part of being on the spectrum, they may feel isolated and confused.
Parents may suddenly find their child withdrawing, or be quick to temper, or easily distressed, anxious or confused.
But much of this could just be typical teenage behaviour? Knowing some of the signs of autism in teenagers can be the first step in working out if their behaviour is related to their stage of life, or whether they might be on the spectrum.