What Does It Mean To Have Poor Motor Skills
Poor motor skills both gross and fine are typical of dyspraxia. Everyday skills which may be impacted may include:
Gross motor skills including walking, running and jumping Fine motor skills including writing, drawing and fastening zips/buttons
There are several types of dyspraxia, which impact motor skills in different ways:
Ideomotor dyspraxia affects single-step motor tasks such as brushing your hair and waving hello or goodbye Ideational dyspraxia affects an individuals ability to perform a sequence of movements, such as brushing your teeth or making a bed Constructional dyspraxia individuals struggle to understand spatial relationships. Children with this type of dyspraxia may have difficulty copying geometric drawings or playing with toys such as building blocks or stacking rings
Reading Spelling And Handwriting Difficulties
As mentioned before, the challenges of dyslexia become more apparent as children learn to read and write. As reading and writing depend on similar underlying processes, children with dyslexia often have writing difficulties .
Handwriting challenges may apply to autistic children too. According to Fuentes et al. children with ASD showed a worse performance on handwriting tasks in comparison to age and intelligence matched children in the control group.
As far as reading deficits are concerned, an overview of neuroimaging studies titled Reading, dyslexia and the brain reveal that a convergence of studies show the dyslexic brain is characterized by under-activation of the vital neural networks for reading.
This biological basis of dyslexia disproves the hurtful sentiment that dyslexic children should just try harder. Once teachers and peers realize that, for dyslexic children, learning and reading difficulties may stem from deficits in processing the sound system of language, such myths will hopefully be dispelled.
With regards to reading in children with autism, the spectrum nature of the condition once again means some autistic individuals excel at reading while others face severe reading impairments. Reading impairments in autistic children are especially prevalent when it comes to comprehension. Autistic children may figure out how to decode words and appear to read well but comprehension of what they are reading may be negatively affected.
What Adhd Looks Like In Adults
In adulthood, symptoms might not be as obvious as they are in children. Adults with ADHD might have trouble focusing. They could be forgetful, restless, fatigued, or disorganized, and they might struggle with follow-through on complicated tasks.
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Is Dyslexia The Same As Autism
Dyslexia is a learning disorder that involves difficulty interpreting words, pronunciations, and spellings.
Autism or autistic spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder where the brain processes sound and colors in a manner different from an average brain. Such people cannot understand visual cues and body language and exhibit socially awkward behavior.
The brains of individuals with both autism and dyslexia show minor variations in the cell structure and arrangement compared with an average brain. In both cases, there are issues with the language system. In autism, it is more about not understanding social cues resulting in awkward responses, whereas, in dyslexia, it is more of a struggle decoding and putting together words, their sounds, and meanings.
Autism may vary in severeness. Individuals with high-functioning autism have excellent hearing, pronunciation, decoding, and spelling skills. What they lack is responding to them in a way that is assumed to be socially normal. Individuals with low-functioning autism often have low intelligence, and they need assistance with feeding, clothing, and daily routine. Some individuals may have convulsion disorders , repetitive habits such as head banging and face twitching, eating non-food items, sleep disorders, and aversion to sounds, touch, and colors.
Attention Disorders With And Without Hyperactivity
ADHD is four times more common in children and adolescents with reading and spelling disorder, and its prevalence in children whose reading and spelling disorder has already been diagnosed is 818%. The coexistence of both conditions is known to greatly increase the burden of each condition considered in isolation . For example, it has been shown that children who face the cumulative problems of both disorders are at greater risk of academic failure, psychosocial consequences, and poor long-term outcomes that persist into adulthood .
ADHD itself has been related to impaired connectivity within specific brain networks known to depend either on the dopaminergic fronto-striatal system, or on the dorsal and ventral attentional networks , even more so in the case of comorbidity with fine motor control deficits . Several DTI and functional connectivity studies , have shown that various white matter paths are abnormally organised in ADHD children and adolescents, especially the superior longitudinal fasciculus, cortico-spinal tracts and cortico-striatal connections, the latter being regionally linked to clinical symptoms .
More recent methods of global connectivity assessment have shown the particular role in ADHD of connections with and within the default mode network , whose activity, which alternates with the cognitive control network in opposing directions according to attentional demands, is presumed to be disrupted in ADHD .
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Music Learning As A New And Potentially Helpful Therapeutic Tool For Improving Dyslexia
At least two independent studies have compared adult dyslexics both with and without an experience of musical practice and non-dyslexic adults and found that dyslexic musicians outperform dyslexic non-musicians on several reading, phonological and auditory memory tasks and even non-dyslexics on some rhythmic tasks . More generally, musical training has been associated with improvement in various cognitive skills as well as academic achievement, including reading and language .
Apart from observational data about the general cognitive effect of musical experience in adult dyslexics, relatively few studies have prospectively explored this effect in dyslexic children. Overy proposed musical activities to dyslexic children, which were designed to progress gradually from a very basic level to a more advanced level over a period of 15 weeks. The results showed a significant improvement, not in reading skills, but in two related areas: phonological processing and written transcription tasks. In addition, performance in transcription was significantly correlated with performance in a timing task. Bhide et al. compared in poor readers the effects of a musical intervention to those of a rhyme training and phonemegrapheme learning software of proven efficacy. In terms of phonological and reading improvements, there was no difference in the results between the two methods.
Comorbidity Between Dyslexia And Asd
There is only a small literature on the overlap in symptomology between autism spectrum disorders with those of dyslexia. Officially, as for ADHD, ASD is an exclusionary criterion for diagnosis of dyslexia and vice versa, but ASD also shows overlap with dyslexia in both cognitive and behavioural features . A proportion of children share symptoms between dyslexia, ADHD and ASD.
The number of children that do share symptoms of ASD and dyslexia is likely to be small . The frequency of reading disorder in combination with disorder of written expression was around 14% in a sample of adults with Aspergers Syndrome so according to this result around one in seven individuals with AS will have co-occurring dyslexia . However the proportion of individuals with dyslexia who have co-occuring AS is likely to be low as Aspergers Syndrome is much a rarer condition than dyslexia.
Overall, the literature suggests, there is good evidence to suggest that some children do suffer from symptoms of both dyslexia and ASD, although this is not so well established, and does not occur so frequently as co-morbidity between ADHD and ASD.
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The Sh3 Domain And Dhr2 Domain Are Important For Dock4
Figure 3. The SH3 domain and DHR2 domain are important for Dock4-regulated Rap1 activation. Domain illustrations of Dock4 and its mutants. Rap1 activation was analyzed after Dock4-FL and various deletion mutants were transfected in HEK293T cells. Rap1-GTP levels were quantified and normalized to total Rap1 expression. Data are shown as mean ± SEM from three independent experiments. P< 0.05, #P< 0.05, ##P< 0.01, one-way ANOVA. Dock4 activates Rap1 through SH3 domain coupling with ELMO2. ELMO2 and Flag-tagged Dock4-FL, SH3 or SH3-F were co-transfected into HEK293T cells as indicated, and the levels of Rap1-GTP were analyzed. Rap1-GTP levels were quantified and normalized. Data are shown as mean ± SEM from three independent experiments. P< 0.05, #P< 0.05, & P< 0.05, one-way ANOVA. The GEF-dead Dock4-AAA mutant lost Rac1-activating ability, but had intact Rap1-activating ability. Dock4-FL and its AAA mutant were transfected in HEK293T cells. Rac1-GTP or Rap1-GTP levels were examined.
Arg853 Is A Unique Site Of Dock4 Among All Dock Families And Is Highly Conserved During Evolution
Arg853 of human Dock4 is located in the linker region between DHR1 and DHR2 domains , a region that has no known molecular function yet. We searched the UniProtKB Protein knowledgebase1 and compared the sequence of amino acid sequences of Dock4 among different species, including frog , mouse , rat , marmoset , rhesus macaque , chimpanzee , and human . By using the Multiple Sequence Alignment analysis tool of Clustal Omega2, we found that the Arg853 and its flanking sequences are highly conserved during evolution . However, this region is not conserved in other Dock family members , suggesting that this region is unique in Dock4.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Autism Spectrum Disorder
ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects how people process certain types of information. The main symptoms are:
- difficulty with social interactions
- engaging in repetitive or ritualistic behaviors
- obsessions with certain topics of interest
Individuals with ASD may share some symptoms in common, such as difficulty in social interactions and repetitive behaviors. But because it is a spectrum disorder, these symptoms can range from mild to severe. Everyone experiences ASD differently. Some children with autism have speech or intellectual delays some do not. Some may have average or above-average IQs. Some may be high-functioning and others may have a severe disability.
Two Autism/dyslexia Linked Variations Of Dock4 Disrupt The Gene Function On Rac1/rap1 Activation Neurite Outgrowth And Synapse Development
- 1JNU-HKUST Joint Laboratory for Neuroscience and Innovative Drug Research, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
- 2Department of Anatomy, Medical College of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
- 3Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Neuronal Structural Biology, Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen Peking University The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Medical Center, Shenzhen, China
- 4Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China
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Special Educational Needs And Disability : Gain Comprehensive Knowledge That Will Enable You To Utilise Teaching Methods
The Special Educational Needs and Disability Course is designed to arm its students with a comprehensive knowledge that will enable them to utilises a variety of teaching methods and practices to suit the different preferred learning styles of the children they teach.
Every child is different and has their own unique pattern of how they learn about the world around them. Good classroom teaching should use a variety of teaching methods to reflect the different preferred learning styles of the children in the class, and to enable every child to be able to engage in learning.
When a child has special educational needs or a disability, learning can be much harder and it doesnt always happen as easily as it does for other children. Different styles of teaching, resources, additional equipment, or adaptations to the classroom may have to be made to enable children with additional needs in order for them to reach their full potential.
SEND Special Educational Needs and DisabilitySpecial Educational Needs and Disability is abbreviated to SEND, and this term will be used throughout this and the following modules of this course.
SEND education takes place in the context of current legislation, so the way it is implemented will alter from one country to the next, however, many of the principles are similar and there are commonalities in terms of best practice regardless of location.
What is a Special Educational Need or Disability?
Who would benefit from the course?
A Literacy And Typing Tool
The Touch-type Read and Spell program is a literacy tool that can help students with dyspraxia and autism acquire typing skills, build confidence and develop a positive self-image. It helps students to feel and to be successful from the very beginning and teaches typing via a phonics-based method that reinforces reading and spelling skills at the same time.
A modular and step-by-step design allows for self-pacing so every learner can proceed at a pace that works for him or her.
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How Is Hyperlexia Diagnosed
Hyperlexia I is not a disorder and doesnt need a diagnosis.
Hyperlexia II is diagnosed by:
- Ability to read far above whats expected based on a childâs age
- Obsession with numbers and letters
- Learning in a rote way, such as by repeating chunks of information
- Other behavioral problems
Hyperlexia III can be difficult to diagnose because, in addition to early reading, children often show âautistic-likeâ traits and behaviors. These include:
- Remarkable ability to memorize
- Phobias and fears
- Lining/stacking behaviors
- Pronoun reversals, such as referring to themselves as he, she, or you or by their own nameâ
However, children with hyperlexia are often affectionate, outgoing, and interactive with their immediate family members. Their autistic-like behaviors decrease over time, and they end up being typical for their age. This needs to be diagnosed by a professional who has expertise in ASD and hyperlexia III.
Advanced Autism Awareness Practical Interventions And Support: Effective Therapeutic Approaches
You will learn about 24 different therapies and interventions that parents can use, with Occupational Therapy, Speech and Language Therapy and ABA covered extensively, along with strategies that can be put in place to help with behavioural issues. You will also learn why children with autism behave as they do, in the hope that it will help you to see things from their perspective and experience an almost first-person viewpoint of how it is to live with autism.
Who would benefit from this course?
The primary audience for this course is parents of children with autism, although it will be of great benefit to you if you work with, or would like to work with, ASD children in any capacity
You will learn techniques and strategies that will help you within your role as a parent, educator or carer, as well as gain a detailed insight into autism and how families cope with children on the spectrum.
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Is Autism A Learning Disability
Autism spectrum disorder is not a learning disability, but it can affect learning in part because autism can affect language skills, both when listening and speaking.
The term learning disability is an umbrella term encompassing a number of different problems with learning most often in reading, writing, math, and problem solving. Learning disabilities cause people to struggle when making connections between different pieces of incoming information, and when working to comprehend and organize that information, according to Understood.org. Autism and learning disabilities can occur together, but they are distinct from one another. They can also be exclusive that is, you can have one without the other.
Dyslexia And Autism Symptoms
Preschoolers suffering from dyslexia shows signs as follows:
- They find difficulty in remembering the alphabet.
- Faces difficulty in pronouncing similar words.
- Trouble while recognizing letters.
- Unable to recognize rhymings, for example, Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall / Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.
Grade-schoolers suffering from dyslexia:
- Reading is very slow as compared to the kids of their age
- Write slowly
- Unable to differentiate between other letters and words
- have difficulty in writing the letter in the backward direction like b instead of d
- words written on the paper appears them to be blurry or jump around
- Unable to follow instructions
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The Influence Of Childcare And The Childs Environment
A third possibility is that environmental factors alone may be enough to trigger not just autistic behaviors, but also other maladaptive behaviors such as inattention. Autistic behaviors were observed in a study of abandoned Romanian children, conducted by Michael Rutter and colleagues . As well as cases with known genetic causes, in some cases, underlying social factors may predispose autistic symptoms. In this study, Rutter and colleagues noted a very high instance of autism in the Romanian baby cohort, which they put down to poor early care. These children exhibited typical symptoms of autism at four years old, but unlike cases of autism without maltreatment, symptoms by age 6 were much milder. This case is an illustration of how children who share severe autistic symptoms at young ages may have differing developmental trajectories. In this study, the symptoms of autism may have been triggered primarily by the early neglect, rather than by a genetic predisposition, for if a genetic predisposition was involved it would effect 6% or more of the babies, a very high proportion.
Challenges And Difficulties In Learning Sounds Letters And Sight Words
If a child has a family history of dyslexia and he/she is also a late talker the child may have an elevated risk of developing dyslexia and the child should be monitored. Further signs to look out for include:
- Challenges in remembering easy nursery rhymes and/or difficulty recognizing rhyme
- Continued use of baby talk and constant mispronunciation of common words
- Difficulty with sequence, logic order, and following directions
- When the child starts learning to read, deficits become more apparent. He/she may struggle with the learning of letter names and continuously muddle up similar looking letters. Later spelling difficulties may lead to great frustration
- Word recognition will be challenging for a child with dyslexia. He/she may guess at certain words, omit others and stumble over words in addition to showing deficits in decoding words
- Its important to note that while letter reversal and reading backwards may occasionally be a sign of dyslexia, its actually pretty common for children to reverse letters as they learn to read and write
A struggle with acquiring language is a symptom of autism and dyslexia, but unlike dyslexia autisms non-social cognitive processes could be to blame for notable constraints on language development . Language impairment is considered a core characteristic of ASD, some autistic children never acquire functional language and remain nonverbal or nonvocal.
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