Tuesday, June 21, 2022

Which Of The Following Best Defines Autism Spectrum Disorder

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Early Signs And Symptoms

Overview of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Diagnostic features of ASD are present in very young children. Most families and caregivers report observing symptoms within the first 2 years of life and typically express concern by the time the child reaches 18 months of age.

Studies of children with ASD found the following:

  • Parents of children with ASD reported first noticing abnormalities in their children’s developmentâparticularly in language development and social relatednessâat about 14 months of age on average .
  • Infants at risk forâand later diagnosed withâASD showed a decline in eye fixation within the first 2â6 months of age. This pattern was not observed in typically developing infants .
  • Children with autism used fewer joint attention gestures and behaviors as infants and toddlers than did age-matched peers who were typically developing .
  • Children with autism showed subtle differences in sensoryâmotor and social behavior at 9 to 12 months of age when compared with typically developing peers .
  • Children with autism showed lower rates of canonical babbling and fewer speech-like vocalizations across the 6- to 24-month age range than did typically developing peers .
  • Infants at risk forâand later diagnosed withâASD used significantly more distress vocalizations than did children who were typically developing and children who were developmentally delayed this may reflect the difficulties that children with ASD have with emotional regulation .

Levels Of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Currently there are 3 levels of Autism Spectrum Disorder. These levels classify how autism is displayed from person to person. So ASD ranges from mild, moderate to severe. Level 1 is a type of autism that requires minimal supports. Level 2 is moderate, and substantial support, and Level 3 requires intensive support.

What’s It Like To Have Autism Spectrum Disorder

A kid with autism might have trouble:

  • talking and learning the meaning of words
  • making friends or fitting in
  • dealing with changes
  • dealing with loud noises, bright lights, or crowds

Kids also might move in an unusual way or do the same thing over and over .

A kid with autism may have a little trouble with these things, or a lot. Some kids need only a little bit of help, and others might need a lot of help with learning and doing everyday stuff.

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Do Symptoms Of Autism Change Over Time

For many children, symptoms improve with age and behavioral treatment. During adolescence, some children with ASD may become depressed or experience behavioral problems, and their treatment may need some modification as they transition to adulthood. People with ASD usually continue to need services and supports as they get older, but depending on severity of the disorder, people with ASD may be able to work successfully and live independently or within a supportive environment.

Domain A: Social Communication And Social Interaction

(PDF) An Evaluation of the Need and Early Intervention ...

Differences or challenges relating to language and social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, both currently or historically. These include difficulty or differences in:

  • Social-emotional communication and personal exchanges.
  • Non-verbal communicative behaviours used for social interaction.
  • Developing, maintaining and understanding relationships.

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Autism Spectrum Disorder And Their Families

Program and Project Criteria for Community Centres for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Families

Introduction

The provincial policy for Mental Health Services as well as its legislative framework calls for the active involvement of consumers and their families in the recovery process. An important component of such a process is the availability and accessibility to social support, self-help, public education, recreational and community inclusion activities. Community centres for persons with autism provide an opportunity for individuals with autism and their families to access such support.

The purpose of population-based services includes reducing the frequency and severity of symptoms and encouraging healthy living skill sets in children. Population-based services are often best directed early in child development and within natural settings therefore promoting naturally occurring supportive relationships.

This document describes the fundamental values under which community-based proposals should operate, defines broadly the objectives sought to achieve and provides operational guidelines.

Values

These values are made evident when:

Objectives

Centres should aim at achieving the following objectives:

Criteria

Centres operate as independent entities with their respective boards and structure accountable for decisions. The following criteria must be respected when applying for project funding from the Mental Health Services Division.

Guidelines

What If My Friend Has Autism Spectrum Disorder

Some people with ASD do not feel that they have a disorder and don’t want to change. They’re proud of who they are and they want to be accepted, even though they may have different strengths and weaknesses than most other people.

All people deserve respect. But kids with ASD may be teased, bullied, or left out because they’re different. Bullying and teasing are never the right way to treat other people, but it may be hard to be a friend with someone who has ASD.

Kids with ASD often don’t understand playful jokes. You may need to be very clear when you communicate with someone who has ASD.

Try to be patient and kind. Remember how hard it might be for the person with ASD to understand how to be a friend. Stand up for classmates who are bullied. Tell adults, so they can help protect kids who are bullied.

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Signs In Girls Vs Boys

It is well documented that more boys than girls are diagnosed with ASD . Girls who do meet the diagnostic criteria for ASD during early childhood tend to have additional problems . This is not the case for boys .

One reason for the discrepancy in diagnosis may be that ASD traits “look different” in girls than in boys. A diagnostic bias toward characteristic ASD traits as they present in boys makes it easy to miss ASD traits as they present in girls . In addition, girls also tend to have fewer and less unusual repetitive stereotyped behaviors than boys .

The following are differences in the playground behaviors of girls and boys with ASD :

Girls with ASD

  • stay in closer proximity to their peers and are better able to capitalize on social opportunity,
  • spend more time in joint engagement,
  • spend more time talking as a primary activity, and
  • appear to use compensatory behaviors to gain access into peer groups .

Boys with ASD

  • tend to play alone rather than participating in organized games,
  • spend more time alone, and
  • spend more time wandering as a primary activity.

A second explanation for the discrepancy in diagnosis might be that girls without additional problems are better able to cope with similar levels of ASD traits. They may mask their social challenges by using various compensatory behaviors .

No Link Between Autism And Immunisation

Integration of Physical Characteristics in Homeopathic Case Definition of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Any link between immunisation and autism has been completely discredited.

During the 1990s, concern in the community about a possible link between the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine and autism was generated by the findings of research conducted in London in 1998. The Wakefield study has since been discredited and withdrawn by the journal that originally published it. Dr Wakefields registration as a doctor in the United Kingdom has also been cancelled.

Extensive research conducted globally for a decade did not establish any link between vaccines and autism.

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What Are The Signs Of Autism

Once you learn the signs of autism, youll start picking up on some of those subtle signs! And its inevitable that youll want some kind of roadmap or blueprint.

Youll want to know beyond a shadow of a doubt if your child has autism.

Right?

Well, thats why Im going to break down the signs by age. Thats a helpful way to provide you with some direction.

Below are some signs that your healthcare provider will look for. Remember, youll still need to consult a professional for a diagnosis. A developmental pediatrician or psychiatrist conducts the assessment necessary to provide the diagnosis.

Recognizing the early signs and getting a diagnosis will give you a crucial jump start. With autism, early detection and intervention are major factors in preparing for success.

Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism is not a single disorder, but a spectrum of closely related disorders with a shared core of symptoms. Every individual on the autism spectrum has problems to some degree with social interaction, empathy, communication, and flexible behavior. But the level of disability and the combination of symptoms varies tremendously from person to person. In fact, two kids with the same diagnosis may look very different when it comes to their behaviors and abilities.

If youre a parent dealing with a child on the autism spectrum, you may hear many different terms including high-functioning autism, atypical autism, autism spectrum disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder. These terms can be confusing, not only because there are so many, but because doctors, therapists, and other parents may use them in dissimilar ways.

But no matter what doctors, teachers, and other specialists call the autism spectrum disorder, its your childs unique needs that are truly important. No diagnostic label can tell you exactly what challenges your child will have. Finding treatment that addresses your childs needs, rather than focusing on what to call the problem, is the most helpful thing you can do. You dont need a diagnosis to start getting help for your childs symptoms.

Whats in a name?

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Section : Clinical Symptoms

Despite advances in understanding the neurobiology and genetics of ASD, the diagnosis of ASD continues to be based on identifying and reporting behaviorally defined clinical symptoms. The challenges in determining accurate prevalence rates, in part, relate to the need for consistency in clinical diagnosis of a very heterogeneous disorder. In 2013, the DSM-5 consolidated the diagnosis of ASD into a single category and emphasized the importance of identifying coexisting developmental and behavioral disorders and symptoms. In the years since the 2007 AAP clinical reports on ASD, both professional education and public awareness have promoted recognition of symptoms that might lead to early identification of ASD, use of standardized screening approaches, and management of associated medical and behavioral features of ASD from infancy through adolescence.

Diagnosis Of Autism In Children

Cases where autism spectrum disorder often interferes with ...

Autism in children is diagnosed through observation by a multidisciplinary team of the following health professionals:

  • paediatrician
  • psychologist or psychiatrist
  • speech pathologist.

Some children will show signs of autism by the age of two and will be diagnosed then. Other may be diagnosed when they are older. The earlier autism can be diagnosed the sooner therapy can begin. Early intervention has been shown to improve outcomes for autistic children.

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Signs And Symptoms Of Asd

People with ASD have difficulty with social communication and interaction, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. The list below gives some examples of the types of behaviors that are seen in people diagnosed with ASD. Not all people with ASD will show all behaviors, but most will show several.

Signs To Look Out For

In some cases, medication may be prescribed to treat symptoms associated with ASD. These symptoms can include irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, anxiety, and depression.

Applied behavior analysis, psychological interventions, and skill-building interventions may also help individuals with ASD. Their work can help individuals with ASD develop the life skills necessary to live independently, reduce challenging behaviors, increase or develop strengths, and develop social communication and language skills.

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Resources For Living With Asd

There are several organizations that can help provide individuals with ASD and their families with valuable resources and information, from research findings and health advocacy to developmental milestone checklists and legislative data. Some of the key organizations include the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, American Academy of Pediatrics, HealthyChildren.org, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Speech-Language Association, and Autism Society of America.

Role Of The Slp In Diagnosis

What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? | DSM-5 Series

Interdisciplinary collaboration in assessing and diagnosing ASD is important due to the complexity of the disorder, the varied aspects of functioning affected, and the need to distinguish ASD from other disorders or medical conditions.

Ideally, the SLP is a key member of an interdisciplinary team with expertise in diagnosing ASD. When there is no appropriate team available, an SLPâwho has been trained in the clinical criteria for ASD and who is experienced in diagnosing developmental disordersâmay be qualified to diagnose these disorders as an independent professional .

Some state laws or regulations may restrict a licensee’s scope of practice and may prohibit the SLP from providing such diagnoses. SLPs should check with their state licensure boards and/or state departments of education for specific requirements.

Assessment

See the Assessment section of the Autism Spectrum Disorders Evidence Map for pertinent scientific evidence, expert opinion, and client/caregiver perspective.

Interdisciplinary collaboration and family involvement are essential in assessing and diagnosing ASD. The SLP is a key member of an interdisciplinary team that includes the child’s pediatrician, a pediatric neurologist, and a developmental pediatrician. There are a number of available algorithms and tools to help physicians develop a strategy for early identification of children with ASD .

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What Are The Causes Of Autism

Its natural to want to know what causes autism, however it is likely that there is not one single cause. While genetic differences are known to cause some types of autism, the causes of autism are largely unknown.

We do know that autism is a neurobiological difference, meaning that the brain processes information differently for people with autism, than it does for people who do not have autism.

We also know that parenting styles do not cause a child to develop autism.

Autism is not caused by vaccinations during or before pregnancy, and the falsely-reported link between the measles-mumps-rubella immunisation and autism has been retracted from the paper it was published in, and completely discredited by the research, scientific and medical community.

For more information about the current studies being undertaken into the causes of autism, visit our what causes autism section.

How Does Asd Affect Communication

The word autism has its origin in the Greek word autos, which means self. Children with ASD are often self-absorbed and seem to exist in a private world in which they have limited ability to successfully communicate and interact with others. Children with ASD may have difficulty developing language skills and understanding what others say to them. They also often have difficulty communicating nonverbally, such as through hand gestures, eye contact, and facial expressions.

The ability of children with ASD to communicate and use language depends on their intellectual and social development. Some children with ASD may not be able to communicate using speech or language, and some may have very limited speaking skills. Others may have rich vocabularies and be able to talk about specific subjects in great detail. Many have problems with the meaning and rhythm of words and sentences. They also may be unable to understand body language and the meanings of different vocal tones. Taken together, these difficulties affect the ability of children with ASD to interact with others, especially people their own age.

Below are some patterns of language use and behaviors that are often found in children with ASD.

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What Research Is Being Conducted To Improve Communication In Children With Asd

The federal governments Autism CARES Act of 2014 brought attention to the need to expand research and improve coordination among all of the components of the National Institutes of Health that fund ASD research. These include the National Institute of Mental Health , along with the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders , the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development , the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences , the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke , the National Institute of Nursing Research , and the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health .

Together, five institutes within the NIH support the Autism Centers of Excellence , a program of research centers and networks at universities across the country. Here, scientists study a broad range of topics, from basic science investigations that explore the molecular and genetic components of ASD to translational research studies that test new types of behavioral therapies. Some of these studies involve children with ASD who have limited speech and language skills, and could lead to testing new treatments or therapies. You can visit the NIH Clinical Trials website and enter the search term autism for information about current trials, their locations, and who may participate.

What Are Some Common Signs Of Asd

Understanding and Managing the Challenging Behavior of ...

Even as infants, children with ASD may seem different, especially when compared to other children their own age. They may become overly focused on certain objects, rarely make eye contact, and fail to engage in typical babbling with their parents. In other cases, children may develop normally until the second or even third year of life, but then start to withdraw and become indifferent to social engagement.

The severity of ASD can vary greatly and is based on the degree to which social communication, insistence of sameness of activities and surroundings, and repetitive patterns of behavior affect the daily functioning of the individual.

Social impairment and communication difficultiesMany people with ASD find social interactions difficult. The mutual give-and-take nature of typical communication and interaction is often particularly challenging. Children with ASD may fail to respond to their names, avoid eye contact with other people, and only interact with others to achieve specific goals. Often children with ASD do not understand how to play or engage with other children and may prefer to be alone. People with ASD may find it difficult to understand other peoples feelings or talk about their own feelings.

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