Autism Statistics By Race And Ethnicity
Minority groups are diagnosed with autism later and less often.
- The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder is highest in non-Hispanic white children .
- Autism statistics are the lowest among Hispanic children .
- Autism prevalence rates in 8-year-olds increased by 10% between 2014 and 2016, and they increased by 175% between 2000 and 2016.
Who Are These Radical Scientists
Independent, decentralized biomedical research has come of age. Also sometimes called DIYbio, biohacking, or community biology, depending on whom you ask, open research is today a global movement with thousands of members, from scientists with advanced degrees to middle-grade students. Their motivations and interests vary across a wide spectrum, but transparency and accessibility are key to the ethos of the movement. Teams are agile, focused on shoestring-budget R& D, and aim to disrupt business as usual in the ivory towers of the scientific establishment.
Ethics oversight is critical to ensuring that research is conducted responsibly, even by biohackers.
Initiatives developed within the community, such as Open Insulin, which hopes to engineer processes for affordable, small-batch insulin production, “Slybera,” a provocative attempt to reverse engineer a $1 million dollar gene therapy, and the hundreds of projects posted on the collaboration platform Just One Giant Lab during the pandemic, all have one thing in common: to pursue testing in humans, they need an ethics oversight mechanism.
These groups, most of which operate collaboratively in community labs, homes, and online, recognize that some sort of oversight or guidance is usefuland that it’s the right thing to do.
Getting To The Causes Of Autism
Getting to the cause — or, more accurately, causes — of autism will be more difficult than unraveling the causes of cancer, says Gary Goldstein, MD, president and CEO of Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, a facility that helps children with autism and other developmental disorders.
“There won’t be one single explanation,” says Marvin Natowicz, MD, PhD, a medical geneticist and vice chairman of the Genomic Medicine Institute at the Cleveland Clinic.
“There’s been a lot of progress in the last few years in terms of understanding the causes of autism,” Natowicz says. “We know a lot more than we did.” Still, he says, research has a long way to go. “One number you see often is that about 10% of those with autism have a definitive diagnosis, a causative condition.” The other 90% of cases are still a puzzle to the experts.
Often, a child with autism will have a co-existing problem, such as a seizure disorder, depression, anxiety, or gastrointestinal or other health problems. At least 60 different disorders — genetic, metabolic, and neurologic — have been associated with autism, according to a report published in The New EnglandJournal of Medicine.
On one point most agree: A combination of genetics and environmental factors may play a role. Scientists are looking at both areas.
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Why So Many People With Autism Have Eating Disorders
Of course, all parents of late-talking children should be sure to have their child screened for autismand all other clinical conditions associated with late talking: speech disorder, language disorder, hearing loss and intellectual disability while also bearing in mind that many late-talking children do not have any disability whatsoever. But never forego assessment simply because the odds are favorable that a late-talking child does not have autism.
But, also be prepared for an even more dramatic increase in the next round of autism data and a HUGE increase in the reported incidence in 2020and beyondbecause the latest 2018 data do not include children who were screened in 2010 at age 2 when the new guidelines for screening 2-year-olds were initiated. That is, national data are for autism in 8-year-olds, but are not reported until four years after a birth cohort turns eight. This years increase is based on children who turned eight in 2014 and were thus born in 2006. The 2020 data will be for children born in 2008, and then screened as 2-year-olds in 2010. They will turn eight in 2016and be reported in the national data in 2020.
Autism Spectrum Disorder. Data and Statistics. . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. accessed 4.29.2018.
Godlee, F., Smith, J., Marcovitch, H. Wakefields article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent. BMJ. 2011 342: c7452. Accessed 01/25/2018.
Strengths And Weaknesses Of The Study
The main strength of this analysis is the extensive and large dataset, broadly representative of the UK population that avoids the biases of specialist clinic-based studies. However, the database has inherent limitations around data completeness. Although validation studies show what data there are are of good quality , there is likely missing data due to private diagnoses and incomplete recording in primary care. The patient groups missing from primary care records include prisoners, private patients, some residential homes, and the homeless. Linkage of mental health data from Child and Adolescent Mental Health services would not improve our ability to compare time trends because the routine data available are patchy: data from some services are not submitted or are incomplete, and other pathways, such as community pediatrics and diagnoses, are often made in private clinics in the UK, which are not included in the data.
Our findings need replication in other datasets, particularly those linked between primary and secondary care. Further research could usefully examine the influence of factors that may affect accessibility to diagnosis , as well as socioeconomic status or ethnicity as these were associated with autism in England in an analysis of educational records . Additional research is also required to establish whether diagnosis is followed by any support, which data linkage might allow researchers to explore.
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Distribution Of Composite Autism
To test whether the same proportion of children had autism-related behaviours in 2007/2008 as 1998/1999, we specified a cut-off . The top 5% range of CATS was selected as it captured 67% of children with a diagnosis of ASD, and the specificity was 95% . Figure 2 illustrates the cut-off point in the pooled study samples. A child above this cut-point likely had poor communication, was less able to sustain peer relationships, and/or was afraid of new situations and/or did not share easily or empathise well. The category was labelled high CATS.
Autism Age Of Diagnosis Statistics
Going back to Autism Speaks:
- Autism can be diagnosed between 18-24 months
- The average age of diagnosis in the US is 4 years
- While autism affects all ethnic groups, it is diagnosed later and less frequently in minority groups. Thus most reports show higher autism rates worldwide among whites compared to other ethnic groups
Unfortunately, not all countries track autism the way many of the more developed countries do.
There is also disparity among countries in the criteria used to diagnose autism. Thus in some cases measuring autism rates worldwide isnt always an apples to apples comparison.
So lets review the . . .
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Autism Among Children In The United States
In an effort to track the number and characteristics of children in the U.S. with autism, the CDC established the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network in 2000. The network collects data from 11 sites throughout the country in order to better understand the impact of ASD in different communities.
The 11 surveillance areas vary in their data set. For example, Arkansass site consists of all 75 counties in the state, whereas Marylands site is just one county in the Baltimore metro area.
Data published in the most recent ADDM Network report, which was released in March 2020, revealed significant shifts and differences in ASD diagnoses and prevalence around the country. Overall, ASD estimates increased significantly across the country, with some sites exhibiting much higher rates of autism than others.
In 2016, the prevalence of ASD among 8-year-old children living across the 11 sites was as follows:
- Arizona: 1.6%
- Tennessee: 1.6%
- Wisconsin: 1.7%
Researchers from the ADDM Network are still gathering information to better understand why prevalence rates vary so much between sites.
While there was no overall difference in autism prevalence among black and white children, there were disparities in early diagnoses and interventions for black children. On average, black and Hispanic children received initial evaluations and diagnoses later than white children, as well as more delayed opportunities for early intervention services.
What Is The National Autism Spectrum Disorder Surveillance System
NASS is a collaboration of federal, provincial and territorial governments, working to build a comprehensive picture of ASD in Canada. NASS will contribute evidence to help inform critical planning of programs, services and research that impact Canadians living with ASD, their families and caregivers.
Led and coordinated by PHAC, NASS tracks the occurrence and demographic characteristics of children and youth with ASD, including estimates of prevalence, incidence and key characteristics, patterns and trends both over time and across geographic regions. NASS collects, analyzes and reports ASD data from multiple sectors such as health, education and social services.
The key objectives of NASS are to:
- Estimate how many children and youth in Canada have ASD and how many new cases are emerging over time
- Describe the population of children and youth in Canada with ASD and compare patterns within Canada and internationally
- Increase public awareness and understanding and,
- Inform research, policy and program decision-making.
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Lessons From Other Conditions And Analytic Methods
There are other complex conditions, such as cancer, Parkinsons disease, asthma, and schizophrenia, where evaluating prevalence changes and understanding biologic and environmental contributions has been a challenge. They provide some examples of how analytic models may be used to understand condition trends.
Changes in cancer trends can be seen from changes in: 1) diagnosis or detection classification and 3) exposures ., Examining patterns of change among a population might explain disease trends due to changes in factors such as the annual frequencies of exposures, availability of screenings, use of new diagnostic technologies, and changes in disease coding. It is important to have data on the occurrence of a condition before and after the change factor being evaluated. In the case of cancer surveillance, there are some well-established sources of data . It is also helpful if there is a clear change factor that has occurred as is seen in the similar slopes of reductions in lung cancer following reductions in smoking., Peaks in prostate cancer prevalence were correlated with the introduction of the first Prostate-specific antigen screening and when follow-up biopsies became more routine.
Modeling change is an integral part of cancer surveillance. There are several important lessons learned from this modeling that can be useful when examining changes in ASD prevalence. The basic steps of modeling change are:
Why Is Autism Increasing Dramatically
Let us start by reiterating some facts about autism.
- Multiple large-scale studies have established, with adequate proof, that vaccines do not cause autism.
- Autism does not develop due to bad parenting choices.
- Autistic spectrum disorders are not contagious.
Although the number of children diagnosed with autism has steadily increased over the last few years, this is not because more children develop autism now than before.
Experts cite the following reasons to explain the rise in autism cases in recent years.
ASD includes a broad spectrum of disorders with following symptoms, thus accommodating more kids under the title of autism.
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The Increase In Autism Diagnoses: Two Hypotheses
A new study sheds more light on the question of what is causing the recent increase in the rate of diagnosis of autism. Professor Dorothy Bishop from the University of Oxford studied adults who were diagnosed in 1980 with a developmental language disorder. She asked the question if these people were subjected to current diagnostic criteria for autism, how many of them would be diagnosed today as having autism? She found that 25% of them would.
This epidemiological question has been at the center of a controversy over whether or not there is a link between vaccines and autism. The primary evidence for this claim put forward by proponents of a link is that the number of diagnoses of autism increased dramatically at the same time that the number of vaccines routinely given to children was increasing in the 1990s. They are calling this rise in autism an epidemic and argue that such an increase requires an environmental factor, which they believe is linked to vaccines.
The confusion about the epidemiology of autism is one common to scientific medicine. Whenever historical comparisons are made it is possible that changing definitions and practices over time will distort those comparisons. This is why medical scientists are often reluctant to change nomenclature and definitions doing so immediately renders the literature obsolete. All subsequent literature must now have a footnote. But the progress of our understanding of biology and disease makes such changes unavoidable.
The Claim: Autism Has Increased By 30000% In 50 Years Is Linked To Vaccines
As states advance in their distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, Americans have continued to discuss what risks could be associated with gaining protection against the virus. One common belief espoused by parents and public figures who are against vaccination is that vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder, despite several studies showing no correlation between childhood vaccination and autism diagnoses.
A may represent a similar view. The post claims that autism “increased 30,000% in 50 years” and suggests there is a link between injections and this statistic. Originally posted on April 3, 2020, the post has accrued roughly 1,500 shares.
In a on the post, the author linked vaccines to the “injections” he mentions, suggesting he made the post, “Because they are trying to make us all take a shot of their NEW ‘Vaccine’!” The post’s comment functionality has since been turned off.
USA TODAY reached out to the poster for comment.
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What Are The Risk Factors For Autism
Going back to the CDC, they find that:
- If one twin has autism the other is up to 95% more likely to also have autism
- Parents of one autistic child are up to 18% more likely to have other autistic children
- Autism is more likely to occur under certain genetic or chromosomal conditions. Thus children with autism are 10% more likely to have down syndrome and other chromosomal disorders
- Children born to older parents are more likely to have autism
- Children of low birth weight or who are born prematurely have a slightly increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder
Autistic individuals have great potential, but we have to give them a chance. We need to create environments where they can thrive, where they can learn better ways to teach themselves. We need to help communities understand.
Autism: A True Increase Or Semantics
The jump in autism cases has spawned not only alarm but also debate about whether the number of children with autism could have increased that much in a relatively brief time.
“There’s a lot of controversy about that,” says Jeff Milunsky, MD, director of clinical genetics and associate director of the Center for Human Genetics at Boston University.
Two researchers who tracked the rate of autism in children born in the same area of England from 1992 to 1995 and then from 1996 to 1998 found that the rates were comparable, and concluded that the incidence of autism was stable. The study was published in the American Journal of Psychiatry in 2005.
But, Milunsky says, several studies have documented an increase in the U.S.
In a recent report in the journal Archives of Disease in Childhood, Milunsky and his colleagues point to several studies finding an increase in autism rates. In 2003, for instance, a large study conducted in Atlanta found that one in 166 to one in 250 children had autism, according to a report published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Another study conducted by the CDC in 14 states found an overall prevalence of one in 152, which Milunsky and others say is the generally accepted figure today.
“A kid labeled autistic today could have been labeled mentally retarded 10 years ago in the same school system,” Shattuck says. It wasn’t until 1992 that schools began to include autism as a special education classification.
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What Information Is Counted
NASS is particularly interested in reporting on two indicators with respect to ASD estimates in Canada:
Prevalence: The total number of cases diagnosed compared to the total number of individuals in a population for a specific time period , supporting comparisons by age, sex, region, time and/or other factors.
Incidence: The number of newly diagnosed cases in a specific time period in a defined population. This may inform a more targeted understanding of any changes by age, sex, region, time and/or other factors. For NASS, the incidence year is attributed to the year in which cases are first diagnosed.
Figure 1 – Incidence and prevalence illustration
Figure 1 – Text description
Figure 1 presents a visualization of incidence and prevalence. A container represents the population. Dots outside of, and moving into, the container represent new incidence. These dots blend into the portion of the container that is filled. The filled area of the container represents prevalence. The dots once blended with the filled portion of the container collectively represent prevalence.
For ASD prevalence, the numerator is the total number of identified ASD cases collected from PT data the denominator is the total number of Canadian children and youth at that point in time. Incidence denominator would only include the total number of Canadian children and youth who are not included as ASD cases. Estimates can be expressed as a percentage a rate and, as a ratio .