Autism More Common In Children In England Than Previously Thought Study
Cambridge researchers find prevalence varied by ethnicity and levels of deprivation in largest data analysis yet
Autism is more common among children in England than previously thought, with rates higher among Black pupils than their white peers, researchers have revealed.
Autism spectrum disorder affects communication and behaviour and is thought to affect 1-2% of people around the world, with diagnoses more common among males than females. However, there has been little large-scale research into its prevalence, and whether it differs with ethnicity.
Now researchers say an analysis of data from more than 7 million schoolchildren in England not only reveals ASD is more common than previously thought, but that there are striking differences in ASD prevalence around the country, and between different groups.
This is the largest prevalence study to date in the world, said Dr Andres Roman-Urrestarazu of the department of psychiatry at the University of Cambridge and a co-author of the new research.
Writing in the journal Jama Pediatrics, Roman-Urrestarazu and colleagues reveal how they analysed data from the 2017 spring school census obtained from the national pupil database in England to determine the prevalence of ASD among schoolchildren aged five to 19 in state-funded schools in England.
This census records whether children have received a diagnosis of ASD through local authorities and the NHS, or have been flagged as having ASD through a school assessment.
Global Perceptions Of Autism
|This article’s lead sectionmay be too short to adequately summarize the key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article.|
|This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: “Global perceptions of autism” news ·newspapers ·books ·scholar ·JSTOR|
|The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a full view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page.|
The Real Reasons Autism Rates Are Up In The Us
A hard look at whether the rise comes from more awareness, better diagnosisor something else
The prevalence of autism in the United States has risen steadily since researchers first began tracking it in 2000. The rise in the rate has sparked fears of an autism epidemic. But experts say the bulk of the increase stems from a growing awareness of autism and changes to the conditions diagnostic criteria.
Heres how researchers track autisms prevalence and explain its apparent rise.
How do clinicians diagnose autism?There is no blood test, brain scan or any other objective test that can diagnose autismalthough researchers are actively trying to develop such tests. Clinicians rely on observations of a persons behavior to diagnose the condition.
In the U.S., the criteria for diagnosing autism are laid out in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . The criteria are problems with social communication and interactions, and restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. Both of these core features must be present in early development.
What is the prevalence of autism in the U.S.?The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 1 in 68children in the U.S. have autism. The prevalence is 1 in 42 for boys and 1 in 189 for girls. These rates yield a gender ratio of about five boys for every girl.
Don’t Miss: Level 2 Autism In Adults
% Of Parents Surveyed Reported That They Have A Child With Autism
In 2019, a survey was carried out that included over 43,000 parents of children aged 3 to 17 concerning their childrens overall health, while also studying any autistic behavior. It included questions on whether or not their child had ASD at any point and if they still have itto which 2.5% answered in the affirmative.
Over 35 Million People In The Us Have Asd
How many people have autism in the US? A whopping 3.5 million people are affected by autism. Medical controls have helped improve symptoms and treat people, but these numbers continue to grow. The prevalence of autism has also led to improved public autism awareness, which can, in turn, lead to faster, more accurate diagnoses.
Also Check: Level 4 Autism
What Is The Best Therapy For Autism
Brian Udell, MD, is the director of the Child Development Center of America.
He claims that autism is often accompanied by gastrointestinal conditions.
People on the autism spectrum disorder often have:
- chronic diarrhea
- food allergies
There is currently no cure for autism or specifically recommended treatment.
However, removing specific food items from the diet and ensuring healthy gut bacteria have been shown to improve the symptoms of autism.
A recent study published by the National Institutes of Health found that a gluten-free diet was effective in reducing some autism symptoms, and 2 groups of investigators also reported improvement in nonverbal cognition.
Other parents have tried removing highly allergic food items such as eggs, fish, nuts, dairy, and soy. The best strategy is to eliminate all items in question from the diet.
Then slowly reintroduce them 1 at a time to see the effects.
Healthy eating for all children is essential, but this is even more true for kids with autism.
Going back to Brian Udell, MD, he recommends avoiding:
- heavily processed foods
- hormones & antibiotics in meat and dairy
He also recommends omega-3 fatty acids to reduce inflammation and a probiotic with 1.5 to 4 billion bacterial parts to improve gastrointestinal health.
Association Between Socioeconomic Status And Asd Prevalence In The United States And Potential Under
In the United States, the prevalence of ASD as identified in both the ADDM Network surveillance system and in the National Health Interview Survey increases with increasing socioeconomic status . This SES gradient in ASD prevalence could be due to disparities in access to services. displays the results of an analysis of ADDM Network data showing the prevalence of ASD to be nearly twice as high in children in the highest SES tertile compared with those in the lowest SES tertile. Similarly, the NHIS data show a doseresponse association between maternal education and the prevalence of reported ASD in children, which ranged from 2.5 per 1,000 among offspring of mothers with less than a high school education to 6.1 per 1,000 among offspring of mothers with a bachelor’s degree . This SES gradient suggests that low-income children with ASD might be underidentified and less likely to be receiving ASD-related services than middle- and high-income children with ASD. This observation is relevant for the SSA, as applications for benefits may continue to rise for children in low-income families.
Prevalence per 1,000 of ASD by three SES indicators based on census block group of residence. NOTE: Thin bars indicate 95 percent confidence intervals. MHI refers to median household income. SOURCE: Durkin et al., 2010.
Don’t Miss: Average Lifespan Of Autistic Person
Autism Rates Around The World
Studies conducted on those with autism show that it affects more boys than girls, and is most prevalent in developed countries. Autism diagnosis occurs across different age groups, though studies also indicate that autism is likely already present at the time of birth, although it is very difficult to form an early diagnosis.
Autism ranges from causing mild symptoms to more obvious abnormal behaviors associated with the condition. Unfortunately, no known cure has been found to alleviate this condition to date. Today, the cases of autism seen in adults and children are still rising. Experts who have been studying the condition have no explanation as to why it is so much more prevalent than before. There are those that believe that autism is caused by unexplained environmental conditions, although the recent rise in autism has also been attributed by increased awareness and effective diagnostic methods specific to the condition.
Autism In Australia: A Snapshot
While most people know someone on the autism spectrum, its not clear to everyone what autism actually is. Autism Spectrum Australia describes autism as a lifelong developmental disability characterised by difficulties in social interaction, impaired communication, restricted and repetitive interests and behaviours, and sensory sensitivities. 4 out of 5 people diagnosed with autism are male.
Until last year, it was generally accepted that approximately 1 in 100 people in Australia are on the autism spectrum. But that number is now considered to be closer to 1 in 70, with a broadening of autism criteria and improvements in identifying autism said to be behind the change.
Also Check: Do People With Autism Die Early
What Country Has The Highest Rate Of Autism
Hong Kong has the highest rate of autism, coming in at a shocking rate of 1 in 27 people!
Of course, its worth repeating that not every country reports autism the same way as others, and there could be a margin of error in comparing the results of 2 different countries.
That being said, its undeniable that Hong Kong is the leader in autism rates, since the country with the best rate, Poland, has a rate of 1 in 3,333 people, a 123.5% difference!
How Many Children In The World Have Autism
Going back to the CDC, 1.7% of the worlds population is on the autism spectrum.
With about 7.5 billion people on the planet, that would have between 75 million and 150 million people being on the autism spectrum.
Since about 26% of the worlds population is age 15 and under, that would mean between 20 and 40 million kids with autism in the world.
Also Check: Level 1 High Functioning Autism
Asd Is Four Times More Likely To Occur In Boys Than Girls
That said, the validity of this stat should be put under scrutiny. According to autism misdiagnosis statistics, many autistic girls go undiagnosed. One of the reasons for that is that girls are often thought to be quieter by nature. Finally, symptoms of mental health issues might overlap with those of autism, leading up to a misdiagnosis.
Around 54 Million Adults In The Us Are Autistic
As many as 5,437,988 people in the US, or 2.21% of the population, are autistic. Whats more, autism statistics by state reveal that the highest number of autistic adults resides in Florida , New York , Texas , and California . The lowest number of autistic adults has been recorded in Louisiana, autism rates by state indicate.
You May Like: Schedule Boards For Autism
Researchers Track Down Autism Rates Across The Globe
In urban areas of South Korea, some families of children with developmental delays will go to great lengths to avoid a diagnosis of chapae, or autism. They think of it as a genetic mark of shame on the entire family, and a major obstacle to all of their childrens chances of finding suitable spouses.
The stigma is so intense that many Korean clinicians intentionally misdiagnose these children with aechak changae, or reactive detachment disorder social withdrawal that is caused by extreme parental abuse or neglect.
The parents prefer this because the mother can take the bullet and protect everybody else, says Roy Richard Grinker, professor of anthropology at George Washington University in Washington, D.C., who has screened some 38,000 children in South Korea for the countrys first study of autism prevalence.
Because of stigma, lack of awareness about mental health and poor medical infrastructure, few autism prevalence studies exist outside of the U.S., Canada and the U.K. Even though it seems like anybody and everybody has heard of autism, in many places in the world its still sort of a new topic, says Charles Zaroff, assistant professor of psychology at the University of Macau in China.
Calculating prevalence is often the first step toward launching government and nonprofit mental health services in these countries. Numbers can also lead to scientific insights on the genetic, environmental and cultural underpinnings of autism.
Ask The Person What They Need
People with autism are experts in their own needs. In a workplace, they will be able to tell you what aspects of the workplace they struggle with, and what they need to do their job. All you need to do is ask, and help them come up with a viable solution.
If you have this conversation as early as possible in the persons employment, there will be far less chance that things will go wrong, as the person will have the necessary tools and adjustments in place from the very beginning. You will also be creating a safe environment, where the person feels that they can communicate their needs and be heard.
Read Also: Open Letter To Jerry Seinfeld
Why Are Autism Rates Steadily Rising
Stefania Sterling with her son Charlie, who was diagnosed at age 3 with autism.
Stefania Sterling was just 21 when she had her son, Charlie. She was young and healthy, with no genetic issues apparent in either her or her husband’s family, so she expected Charlie to be typical.
“It is surprising that the prevalence of a significant disorder like autism has risen so consistently over a relatively brief period.”
It wasn’t until she went to a Mommy and Me music class when he was one, and she saw all the other one-year-olds walking, that she realized how different her son was. He could barely crawl, didn’t speak, and made no eye contact. By the time he was three, he was diagnosed as being on the lower functioning end of the autism spectrum.
She isn’t sure why it happened and researchers, too, are still trying to understand the basis of the complex condition. Studies suggest that genes can act together with influences from the environment to affect development in ways that lead to Autism Spectrum Disorder . But rates of ASD are rising dramatically, making the need to figure out why it’s happening all the more urgent.
The Latest News
“It is surprising that the prevalence of a significant disorder like autism has risen so consistently over a relatively brief period,” said Walter Zahorodny, an associate professor of pediatrics at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, who was involved in collecting the data.
Searching for Answers
A Polarizing Theory
What Are The Immediate Takeaways From This List Of Countries With Lowest Autism Rates
- Asian countries dominate the list
- Northern European countries also dominate the list
- Generally speaking, the more developed a country, the higher the rate of autism
- For conspiracy buffs, its interesting to note that Poland, the country with the lowest rates of autism, does, in fact, have mandatory vaccinations
- That being said, Poland only mandates 11 vaccines, spread out over 20 shots from birth through 7 months of age
- Compare that the CDCs recommended 15 vaccines in the US spread out over 20 shots from birth through 6 months
- From a dietary standpoint, its interesting to note that the typical Polish meals are spread out over 5 meals instead of 3 with the largest meal being around 2pm
- Europe and parts of Asia also take a much stronger stance against the use of added growth hormones in meat and dairy than The US
- There are not any countries with no autism
But in the end, there is not conclusive evidence thus far on exactly why some countries have significantly lower rates of autism than others.
You May Like: Symbol For Autism Awareness
Boys Are Four Times More Likely To Have Asd Than Girls
From the many statistics laid out concerning the disorder, several conclusions have been reached regarding how many people are affected by it. The most recognized comes from the CDC, showing that every 1 in 59 persons has ASD to some degree. However, ASD rates are clearly higher in boys when we look at the data from a gender-based perspective. And autism in girls is significantly less common. Its been determined that 1 in 38 boys and 1 in 152 girls have experienced or still experience autism spectrum disorder.
Verified Autism Spectrum Disorder Statistics From The Cdc Show That A Child Whose Biological Parents Are Older Is More Likely To Have Asd
The studies compared mothers aged 35 or older and fathers aged 40 or older to parents aged 2029. They found that children of older parents have a higher risk of experiencing severe autism. According to the same set of autism facts and statistics, the first child born of these parents is three times as likely to have autism as any younger siblings.
Recommended Reading: Levels Of Asd
Historical Prevalence Of Asd
Severe ASD from California DDS
Statewide autism counts from the California Department of Developmental Services were used as the basis for the estimation of severe autism prevalence. The primary datasets were an age-resolved CDDS snapshot for 2020 tabulating the number of individuals receiving services for autism, resolved by individual birth year from 1953 to 2016 . The 2020 data were supplemented with birth year 19311952 autism counts from the 2017 CDDS snapshot to extend the curve back to birth year 1931. The 2020 snapshot was used as the basis for the Base Case and Prevention scenarios discussed below. An additional age-resolved CDDS snapshot for 2014, resolved by individual birth year from 1931 to 2010, was used in the estimation of the Low future scenario discussed below. The CDDS autism counts were converted to prevalence in % using California live birth data as denominators, as per Nevison et al. .
Milder Autism Prevalence