What Does This Guide Cover
This guide describes research about the possible benefits and negative side effects of therapies for children who are 0 to 12 years old and have ASD. It was created to help you talk with your doctor, school administrator, social worker, or health insurance representative about programs and therapies.
Most Children With Autism Benefit From Some Type Of Behavioral Therapy
Its important for anyone with an autism diagnosis, or who is the caregiver of someone with autism, to know that for most people, no one therapy alone will likely be the solution, says Jeremy Veenstra-Vanderweele, MD, director of child and adolescent psychiatry at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. This goes for adults and kids on the spectrum. Also, you can expect to have good days, when symptoms are manageable or not bothersome at all, and bad days, when symptoms are much more severe. Life wont always be perfect, he says.
Behavioral therapies for autism provide structure, direction, and organization for the child, to help them learn behavioral, social, and communication skills, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Behavioral therapy is usually provided in a one-on-one setting by a psychologist, special education teacher, speech therapist, or other providers who are trained in the technique.
Some such therapies are:
Applied Behavioral Analysis ABA is a treatment approach that has been in wide use since the 1960s. It is based on encouraging good behaviors and discouraging negative behaviors to help teach communication, social interaction, and community living skills.
Where Do I Find Aba Services
To get started, follow these steps:
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Other Treatments And Therapies
You may have heard or read of other types of treatments or therapies that have been used for children with ASD, such as:
- Speech and language therapy
- Sleep education and training
Do they help?
These other therapies have not been studied enough to know if they help or have any side effects. This does not mean that they do not work or are not safe. It just means that researchers do not have enough information to know for sure.
What else should I think about?
Because little is known about how well these treatments or therapies work, talking about them with your doctor, other health care or education professionals, your family, and other people that you trust may help you decide whether to try them.
Autism As A Social And Emotional Disorder
Autism was first characterized as a social and emotional disorder in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner, a child psychiatrist in the United States. In a paper published in the journal Nervous Child titled Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact, Kanner describes a distinct syndrome characterized by children who are highly intelligent but have tendencies towards social withdrawal with emotional limitations.
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Meanwhile, across the Atlantic in Germany, Hans Asperger was defining a different form of autism. Asperger published his autism psychopathology article in 1944, describing autism as a disorder of normal intelligence children who have difficulties with social and communication skills. Later thought of as a milder form of autism and now commonly known as Aspergers disorder, children with Aspergers tend to suffer similar challenges with social interactions but do not have the same language development challenges often found in Kanners disorder.
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What Causes Autism Spectrum Disorder
There is no clear-cut cause of ASD. Some causes that are supported by research include genetic and some environmental factors. Specific genetic causes can only be identified in 10% to 20% of cases. These cases include specific genetic syndromes associated with ASD and rare changes in the genetic code.
Risk factors include older parental age, low birth weight, prematurity and maternal use of valproic acid or thalidomide during pregnancy, among others. This field of study is an active one for reasearch.
What Is A Typical Prt Therapy Program Like
Each program is tailored to meet the goals and needs of the individual person and his or her everyday routines.
A session typically involves six segments. Language, play and social skills are targeted with both structured and unstructured interactions.
The focus of each session changes as the person makes progress, to accommodate more advanced goals and needs.
PRT programs usually involve 25 or more hours per week.
Everyone involved in the childs life is encouraged to use PRT methods consistently in every part of his or her life. PRT has been described as a lifestyle adopted by the whole family.
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Are Siblings At Greater Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder
The truth is that genetics do play a role in autism. When one child is diagnosed with ASD, the next child to come along has about a 20% greater risk of developing autism than normal. When the first two children in a family have both been diagnosed with ASD, the third child has about a 32% greater risk of developing ASD.
Treating Autism With Medication
If behavioral and educational interventions arent sufficient, medication may help an individual with autism to better manage his symptoms. Three main classes of medication are used with ASD patients: stimulants, antidepressant and anxiety medications, and atypical antipsychotics.
Stimulants are the most common class of medications used to treat ADHD. ADHD and ASD commonly co-occur, and its important to get ADHD symptoms under control when treating a child with both conditions. Children with ASD can be more sensitive to side effects, and should be monitored carefully when prescribed stimulants. A pediatrician may refer a child with ASD to a psychiatrist or a psycho-pharmacologist as the dose is increased.
Antidepressant and anxiety medications can help people with ASD deal with the common challenges of persistent anxiety and obsessive behaviors. Symptoms like running away from new situations, compulsive checking or washing, or anxiety from strict black-and-white thinking can present big obstacles in day-to-day life. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as sertraline or fluoxetine can sometimes help with mood, anxiety, obsessive thoughts, and compulsive behaviors1. They are used off-label.
1National Institute of Mental Health. Medications for Autism. PsychCentral. . Web.
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Police Arrest Suspects Accused Of Stealing Identities Of Victims Who Died In South Florida Condo Collapse
Florida law enforcement officials said they arrested three people suspected of stealing the identities of victims who died in the Surfside condominium building collapse in June.
Betsy Alexandra Cacho Medina, 30, Rodney Choute, 38, and Kimberly Michelle Johnson, 34, were arrested earlier Wednesday on multiple charges related to fraud and counterfeiting, the Miami-Dade State Attorneys Office announced during a news conference.
Officials have identified at least five deceased and two living victims from the building, but the investigation continues and additional victims could be found, State Attorney Katherine Fernandez Rundle said.
“Cyber grave robbers did move very quickly after the collapse to grab what they could from deceased victims while family and friends were in absolute emotional turmoil,” Fernandez Rundle said. “Their motto couldve been, Your loss is our gain.'”
Autism Therapies Parents Can Provide In Their Own Home
It’s expensive to care for a child with autism. Even if you have top-notch insurance and a wonderful school district, you’ll pay premium prices for everything from babysitting to summer camp. Therapy can be a costly added expense, especially when some of the best therapists won’t accept insurance.
Fortunately, however, there are many well-established risk-free therapies that parents can provide on their own with relatively little cost in time or money. Even better, therapies provided by parents can be just as effective as those provided by therapists. Best of all, these are therapies that can help parents bond with their children while also building skills. Of course, not every parent wants to providing therapy to an autistic child, but if you’re hoping to save money while bonding with your child it’s well worth a try.
Many parents can get started with these therapies by reading, watching videos, or attending classes online or in person.;Other parents are more comfortable working with a trained therapist until they feel comfortable taking the lead. Even if parents do choose to work with a therapist, they can also learn to provide therapy for their child between therapy sessions, thus building their own skills while lowering the cost of therapy.
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What Else We’re Watching
Can Diet Have An Impact On Autism
Theres no specific diet designed for autistic people. Nevertheless, some autism advocates are exploring dietary changes as a way to help minimize behavioral issues and increase overall quality of life.
A foundation of the autism diet is the avoidance of artificial additives. These include preservatives, colors, and sweeteners.
An autism diet may instead focus on whole foods, such as:
Some autism advocates also endorse a gluten-free diet. The protein gluten is found in wheat, barley, and other grains.
Those advocates believe that gluten creates inflammation and adverse bodily reactions in certain autistic people. However, scientific research is inconclusive on the relationship between autism, gluten, and another protein known as casein.
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Complementary And Alternative Medicine Treatments
To relieve the symptoms of ASD, some parents and healthcare professionals use treatments that are outside of what is typically recommended by pediatricians. These treatments are known as complementary and alternative medicine treatments. CAM treatments refer to products or services that are used in addition to or instead of traditional medicine. They might include special diets, dietary supplementsexternal icon, chelation , biologicals , or mind-body medicine .
Many of these treatments have not been studied for effectiveness; moreover, a review of studies on chelation found some evidence of harm and no evidence to indicate it is effective in treating children with ASD . Current research shows that as many as one-third of parents of children with ASD may have tried CAM treatments, and up to 10% may be using a potentially dangerous treatment . Before starting such a treatment, talk to your childs doctor.
To learn more about CAM therapies for ASD, go to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicines Autismexternal icon webpage. The FDA has information about potentially dangerous treatments hereexternal icon.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome And Autism
Fetal alcohol syndrome, or FAS, and autism are unrelated disorders that share some symptoms. Children born to mothers who drank while pregnant are at risk for FAS. However, studies have shown that these children are not at higher risk for ASD. Symptoms that FAS and ASD have in common in some children include:
- Sensory issues
- Problems with thinking and decision making
- Social problems
However, there is a difference between autism and fetal alcohol syndrome. For example, FAS and ASD often lead to different types of social problems:
- Someone with ASD is more likely to seem distant and detached in social situations
- Someone with FAS is more likely to appear overly friendly and not have common social boundaries
In addition, someone with ASD is more likely to have a higher nonverbal IQ than verbal IQ. However, someone with FAS is likely to be the opposite, having a higher verbal IQ than a nonverbal IQ. Although it is not impossible for someone to have both FAS and ASD at the same time, it is rare.
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Prepare For Early Intervention
Early speech or behavioral interventions can help children learn self-care as well as social and communication skills. These services help create fundamental skills, such as talking and communicating with others.
Some early intervention programs may include the following services:
- speech therapy
- individual psychotherapy
- family therapy
Your childs doctor will help you find the right specialist based on your childs needs.
Prevalence Of Alcohol Abuse And Autism
One study showed that the risk of substance abuse in people with ASD is double that of people without ASD. Another study found that 35% percent of individuals with six or more autistic traits were alcohol-dependent, compared to 20% of individuals with no autistic traits. However, the risk may depend on how severe someones ASD is. Doctors are not sure which traits in ASD may make someone more likely to struggle with substance use, and which traits may make them less likely to use substances like alcohol. Therefore, more research is needed on the topic.
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In Search Of Lost Time:
Most people, including mental health professionals, would not have connected either Kyles self-injury or Dougs classic catatonia with ECT. Psychiatrists who administer the therapy typically work with older people who are severely depressed. In the past few years, psychiatrists interest in the approach has been rising. Wachtel and others have regularly led well-attended sessions on ECT at psychiatric conferences for the past six years. Still, for many doctors, the stigma around the therapy is a tough mental hurdle to overcome especially when it comes to children, and even more so those with developmental disabilities. It recalls connotations of torture and I guess brain injury, says Dhossche. But in all the cases that weve treated, weve never seen it.
One of the major side effects reported for ECT is memory loss. But psychiatrists and families who have experience with the therapy say the memory loss, when it occurs, is minor and reversible. Even in the rare cases where it is significant, they say, it is infinitely better than the alternative.
I have one patient who has had over 700 ECT over the past eight years, maybe. If you ask him now what he had for breakfast, he cannot tell you, says Wachtel. But on the other hand, without ECT he would try to remove his eyeballs from his head.
Sunny outlook: Kyle now goes hiking, bowling and swimming, but the park is his favorite destination.
How Does Autism Affect Kids
Autistic children may not reach the same developmental milestones as their peers, or they may demonstrate the loss of previously developed social or language skills.
For instance, a 2-year-old without autism may show interest in simple games of make-believe. A 4-year-old without autism may enjoy engaging in activities with other children. An autistic child may have trouble interacting with others or dislike it altogether.
Autistic children may also engage in repetitive behaviors, have difficulty sleeping, or compulsively eat nonfood items. They may find it hard to thrive without a structured environment or consistent routine.
If your child is autistic, you may have to work closely with their teachers to ensure they succeed in the classroom.
Many resources are available to help autistic children as well as their loved ones. Local support groups can be found through the national nonprofit The Autism Society of America.
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Is Floortime Covered By Insurance
Sometimes. Many types of private health insurance are required to cover services for autism. This depends on what kind of insurance you have, and what state you live in.
All Medicaid plans must cover treatments that are;medically necessary;for children under the age of 21. If a doctor recommends Floortime and says it is medically necessary for your child, Medicaid must cover the cost.
Some young children receive Floortime through their Early Intervention program. Early intervention is offered in each state to children under age 3 who are not growing and developing at the same rate as others.;These services are free or low-cost based on your family income.;
Please see our;insurance resources;for more information about insurance and coverage for autism services.;
You can also;contact the Autism Response Team;if you have difficulty obtaining coverage, or need additional help.
Uwm Offering Stipend To Msu Basketball And Football Players
United Wholesale Mortage will give every Michigan State basketball and football player a $500 monthly stipend, one of the first examples of Michigan college athletes cashing in on their name, image, and likeness since a recent Supreme Court ruling.
CEO Mat Ishbia, a former Spartan himself that was part of the 2000 national title team, asked for only one thing in return: that players publicize the mortgage lender on their social media pages and spread the word about the company’s home-lending options.;
“The people that follow these athletes are actually going to get a great benefit because theyre going to learn about the mortgage process, the athletes are going to get a great benefit because theyre going to get paid,” Ishbia said.
Not everyone thought the money was will spent. Two state lawmakers and MSU alumni see the stipend as “blatant sexism” for excluding female athletes. “Nearly 50 years after Title IX was signed into law, its incredibly disappointing and downright shocking that United Wholesale Mortgage chose to exclude talented female student-athletes,” said Rep. Mari Manoogian.;
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