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Report Of The National Autism Spectrum Disorder Surveillance System*
In Canada, among children and youth 5-17 years of age:
- An estimated 1 in 66 have been diagnosed with ASD
- Males were identified with ASD 4x more frequently than females. One in 42 males were diagnosed with ASD. One in 165 females were diagnosed with ASD.
- More than half of children and youth had received their diagnosis by age 6 and more than 90% of children and youth were diagnosed by age 12.
*Report finding are based on 2015 health, education and social services data collected from seven participating provincial and territorial governments , representing 40% of children and youth in Canada.
Acknowledgements: This work was made possible through collaboration between the Public Health Agency of Canada and participating provincial and territorial governments and expert advice from the Autism Spectrum Disorders Advisory Committee . This infographic was developed by PHAC, no endorsement by provincial and territorial partners should be inferred.
Risk Factors For Chances Of Having Another Child With Autism
There are several factors that will raise your chances of having a child with autism. A lot of the data has been studied extensively by Sven Sandin, statistician and epidemiologist at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City.
He studied health records of more than 5.7 million children born between 1985 and 2004 in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Israel and Western Australia.
The data showed increased chances of having a child with autism if these factors are present:
Less time between births
You are more likely to have a child with autism with 1 year between siblings than 3 years for example
If the mother is over 40years old the chances of having a child with autism rise steeply.
And its not just the mother. Fathers who are over 50 years old increase the chances 66% higher chance due to defects in sperm quality.
There is a link with teenage parents and increased risk of autism. Teenage girls are 18% more likely to have a child with autism than women in their 20s.
Large gap in age of the parents
If there is over 10 years in age gap between the parents there is increased chance of having a child with autism.
Children are least likely to have autism if both parents are in their 20s or 30s at the time of birth.
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What Research Is Being Done
The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use that knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease. The NINDS is a component of the National Institutes of Health , the leading supporter of biomedical research in the world. NINDS and several other NIH Institutes and Centers support research on autism spectrum disorder.
Nearly 20 years ago the NIH formed the Autism Coordinating Committee to enhance the quality, pace, and coordination of efforts at the NIH to find a cure for autism. The NIH/ACC has been instrumental in promoting research to understand and advance ASD. The NIH/ACC also participates in the broader Federal Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee , composed of representatives from various U.S. Department of Health and Human Services agencies, the Department of Education, and other governmental organizations, as well as public members, including individuals with ASD and representatives of patient advocacy organizations. One responsibility of the IACC is to develop a strategic plan for ASD research, which guides research programs supported by NIH and other participating organizations.
How Many People Are Autistic
According to the National Autistic Society 700,000 people are on the autistic spectrum in the UK. There is no official count of people with autism but this is a well-established estimate and if anything its likely to be conservative. This figure represents more than 1% of the population.
Almost 50% of people with autism have a learning disability and around a third of people with learning difficulties have autism.
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The Real Reasons Autism Rates Are Up In The Us
A hard look at whether the rise comes from more awareness, better diagnosisor something else
The prevalence of autism in the United States has risen steadily since researchers first began tracking it in 2000. The rise in the rate has sparked fears of an autism epidemic. But experts say the bulk of the increase stems from a growing awareness of autism and changes to the conditions diagnostic criteria.
Heres how researchers track autisms prevalence and explain its apparent rise.
How do clinicians diagnose autism?There is no blood test, brain scan or any other objective test that can diagnose autismalthough researchers are actively trying to develop such tests. Clinicians rely on observations of a persons behavior to diagnose the condition.
In the U.S., the criteria for diagnosing autism are laid out in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . The criteria are problems with social communication and interactions, and restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. Both of these core features must be present in early development.
What is the prevalence of autism in the U.S.?The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 1 in 68children in the U.S. have autism. The prevalence is 1 in 42 for boys and 1 in 189 for girls. These rates yield a gender ratio of about five boys for every girl.
The Research By The Numbers
The team of researchers studied data from Danish national health registries that included three generations and nearly 1.5 million children.
They found that the chance of having ASD for children born to parents who are in their 30s is up to 10 percent higher than parents who are 25 to 29 years old.
The researchers also reported that the chance is 50 percent higher when the parents are in their 40s or 50s.
We observed that children with young maternal grandparents and children with young and old paternal grandparents had higher risk compared with children of grandparents who were 25 to 29 years old at the time of the birth of the parents, Liew said.
He says these findings, however, are unique and require further replications.
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What Are The Chances Of Having A Child With Autism
Have you and your partner considered the chances of having a child with autism?
And what are the chances of having another child with autism if your first child has autism?
Every parent knows all too well that having a child completely changes your life for ever.
For the better, for sure!
Though there are moments when you are cleaning up poop, listening to 3rd hour of continual crying, or being called to the school for your childs bad behaviour when you seriously wonder if you could do this all over again!
If you happen to have a child with autism, you know already the extra demand on your energy levels, your sanity, your finances with extra therapy, special schools and doctors appointments.
And while you love your child completely and unreservedly, some parents admit feeling guilty if they secretly hope their second child does not have autism.
There are also feelings of will you have enough time? for the second child as your first child already takes up so much time.
There is a lot to unpack and consider here.
This is complicated of course by the fact that there is not one clear cause for autism
What Are The Current Regulations In The Uk
There are currently no regulations in place to ensure teachers in mainstream schools have qualifications and experience in teaching autistic children.
We contacted The Department of Education who could not give us any information in this area. We too contacted The Institute of Education at the University of London, who informed us that their teaching courses do not provide any training in teaching special needs children.
In order to have experience in teaching special needs children, teachers would have to go on to do a Masters degree in Special Needs.
Currently, the only regulation in place in the UK in mainstream schools is that every school must have a designated SENCO who will communicate the needs of the student to the relevant staff.
Dan Leighton, speaking on behalf of the National Autistic Society highlighted the issues: The problem is there is no initial teacher training in relation to teaching children with autism – this is not directly regulated by the Department of Education.
Leighton went on to say, Access to a specialist teacher is patchy, with relatively few local authorities providing autism advisory teachers for schools. It is the responsibility of the SENCOs and head teachers to ensure that staff have access to adequate training and expertise.
This highlights the lack of structure in the education given to autistic children – some head teachers and SENCOs may be more proactive than others.
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Cognitive Functioning Among Children With Autism
Autism is not a learning disability, but it can affect cognitive function. Some children on the autism spectrum have delays in speech or learning, while others do not. Because it is a spectrum disorder, these delays can range from mild to severe.
- One-third of children with autism were classified as having an intellectual disability .
- 7% more girls than boys were identified to have an intellectual disability with autism .
- 24% of children with autism had an IQ in a borderline range .
- Black and Hispanic children were more likely than white children to have an intellectual disability with autism.
Cdc Estimate On Autism Prevalence Increases By Nearly 10 Percent To 1 In 54 Children In The Us
Important progress made in key indicators: For the first time, prevalence rates are the same for black and white children, and significant progress made toward number of children receiving developmental screening by age 3
NEW YORK – The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released today its biennial update of autisms estimated prevalence among the nations children, based on an analysis of 2016 medical and/or school records of 8-year-olds from 11 monitoring sites across the United States. The new report demonstrates real progress in early screening and diagnosis, the result of more than a decade of awareness and advocacy work by Autism Speaks and other organizations.
The report reflects a continued increase in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in the United States. Importantly, for the first time the CDC found no difference in the prevalence rates between black and white children, indicating that gaps in access to screening and diagnosis may be closing.
Key findings include:
The CDC report was released in advance of Aprils World Autism Month and World Autism Awareness Day , which Autism Speaks dedicates to increasing global understanding and acceptance of people with autism. To engage in this effort to create a kinder, more inclusive world, visit www.autismspeaks.org/kindness.
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What Information Is Counted
NASS is particularly interested in reporting on two indicators with respect to ASD estimates in Canada:
Prevalence: The total number of cases diagnosed compared to the total number of individuals in a population for a specific time period , supporting comparisons by age, sex, region, time and/or other factors.
Incidence: The number of newly diagnosed cases in a specific time period in a defined population. This may inform a more targeted understanding of any changes by age, sex, region, time and/or other factors. For NASS, the incidence year is attributed to the year in which cases are first diagnosed.
Figure 1 – Incidence and prevalence illustration
Figure 1 – Text description
Figure 1 presents a visualization of incidence and prevalence. A container represents the population. Dots outside of, and moving into, the container represent new incidence. These dots blend into the portion of the container that is filled. The filled area of the container represents prevalence. The dots once blended with the filled portion of the container collectively represent prevalence.
For ASD prevalence, the numerator is the total number of identified ASD cases collected from PT data the denominator is the total number of Canadian children and youth at that point in time. Incidence denominator would only include the total number of Canadian children and youth who are not included as ASD cases. Estimates can be expressed as a percentage a rate and, as a ratio .
Whats Known On This Subject:
Autism prevalence is reported to be highest among non-Hispanic white children, lower in Hispanic and African American/black children, and highly variable in Asian/Pacific Islanders. More comorbid intellectual disability and delays in expressive language have been observed among Hispanic and African American children.
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What Disorders Are Related To Asd
Certain known genetic disorders are associated with an increased risk for autism, including Fragile X syndrome and tuberous sclerosis each of which results from a mutation in a single, but different, gene. Recently, researchers have discovered other genetic mutations in children diagnosed with autism, including some that have not yet been designated as named syndromes. While each of these disorders is rare, in aggregate, they may account for 20 percent or more of all autism cases.
People with ASD also have a higher than average risk of having epilepsy. Children whose language skills regress early in life before age 3 appear to have a risk of developing epilepsy or seizure-like brain activity. About 20 to 30 percent of children with ASD develop epilepsy by the time they reach adulthood. Additionally, people with both ASD and intellectual disability have the greatest risk of developing seizure disorder.
Is Autism An Epidemic
Before discussing whether these numbers suggest an epidemic, its necessary to understand why autism statistics have increased. An epidemic is a spike in the rate of new cases. However, its unclear whether the prevalence of autism has really increased or if its just an increase in diagnoses.
Chris Abildgaard, LPC, a writer for Autism Parenting Magazine explains that there is an increase in identified cases of autism due to, expanding the definition from autism to autism spectrum disorder increasing knowledge of the disorder by professionals, which leads to an increase in better and earlier diagnoses more consistency by CDCs Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network in the method used to identify cases an actual increase in the rate of children being born with the disorder.
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Possible Etiologies For The Co
Due to the previous DSM-IV diagnostic constraints, research concerning the possible etiologies of the co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD is scarce. The central focus of available research is in the fields of neuropsychology, genetics, and neuroimaging.
Although there are some important differences between the two disorders, as mentioned in the introduction, ASD and ADHD share many similar impairments in developmental and cognitive domains. Both are more common in males, have a strong comorbidity with intellectual disability, and are also associated with other specific learning and developmental difficulties, notably language, reading, and motor problems. Executive functions deficits are common in both disorders, together with response inhibition deficit. EF measures hardly discriminated between ADHD and HFA, but compared to children with ADHD, the HFA group showed more difficulty with cognitive flexibility and planning . Children with ADHD have pragmatic language difficulties similar to children in the ASD spectrum . Further neuropsychological similarities are suggested by a study of emotional recognition and theory of mind which showed that children with ADHD could not be distinguished from those with ASD .
Supporting Young People In England With Autism Spectrum Disorder
In England, education, health and care plans are the mechanism to identify what additional support is required to help meet the needs of children and young people aged up to 25 with special educational needs and disabilities, including those with autism spectrum disorder.
The Children and Families Act 2014 the legislation which established and underpins education, health and care plans set out a deadline which requires local authorities to deliver plans within 20 weeks of receiving a request for an EHC needs assessment.
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Why Are Autism Rates Steadily Rising
Stefania Sterling with her son Charlie, who was diagnosed at age 3 with autism.
Stefania Sterling was just 21 when she had her son, Charlie. She was young and healthy, with no genetic issues apparent in either her or her husband’s family, so she expected Charlie to be typical.
“It is surprising that the prevalence of a significant disorder like autism has risen so consistently over a relatively brief period.”
It wasn’t until she went to a Mommy and Me music class when he was one, and she saw all the other one-year-olds walking, that she realized how different her son was. He could barely crawl, didn’t speak, and made no eye contact. By the time he was three, he was diagnosed as being on the lower functioning end of the autism spectrum.
She isn’t sure why it happened and researchers, too, are still trying to understand the basis of the complex condition. Studies suggest that genes can act together with influences from the environment to affect development in ways that lead to Autism Spectrum Disorder . But rates of ASD are rising dramatically, making the need to figure out why it’s happening all the more urgent.
The Latest News
“It is surprising that the prevalence of a significant disorder like autism has risen so consistently over a relatively brief period,” said Walter Zahorodny, an associate professor of pediatrics at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, who was involved in collecting the data.
Searching for Answers
A Polarizing Theory