Prevalence And Characteristics Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years Autism And Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network 11 Sites United States 2018
Surveillance Summaries / December 3, 2021 / 70 1â16
Matthew J. Maenner, PhD1 Kelly A. Shaw, PhD1 Amanda V. Bakian, PhD2 Deborah A. Bilder, MD2 Maureen S. Durkin, DrPH, PhD3 Amy Esler, PhD4 Sarah M. Furnier, MS3 Libby Hallas, MS4 Jennifer Hall-Lande, PhD4 Allison Hudson5 Michelle M. Hughes, PhD1 Mary Patrick, MPH1 Karen Pierce, PhD6 Jenny N. Poynter, PhD4 Angelica Salinas, MS3 Josephine Shenouda, MS7 Alison Vehorn, MS8 Zachary Warren, PhD8 John N. Constantino, MD9 Monica DiRienzo, MA1 Robert T. Fitzgerald, PhD9 Andrea Grzybowski, MS6 Margaret H. Spivey10 Sydney Pettygrove, PhD11 Walter Zahorodny, PhD7 Akilah Ali, MPH1,12 Jennifer G. Andrews, PhD11 Thaer Baroud, MHSA, MA5 Johanna Gutierrez2 Amy Hewitt, PhD4 Li-Ching Lee, PhD10 Maya Lopez, MD5 Kristen Clancy Mancilla11 Dedria McArthur, MPH1 Yvette D. Schwenk, MS5 Anita Washington, MPH1 Susan Williams1 Mary E. Cogswell, DrPH1
Problem/Condition: Autism spectrum disorder .
Period Covered: 2018.
Among the 3,007 children with ASD and data on cognitive ability, 35.2% were classified as having an intelligence quotient score 70. The percentages of children with ASD with IQ scores 70 were 49.8%, 33.1%, and 29.7% among Black, Hispanic, and White children, respectively. Overall, children with ASD and IQ scores 70 had earlier median ages of ASD diagnosis than children with ASD and IQ scores > 70 .
Terminology And Distinction From Schizophrenia
As late as the mid-1970s there was little evidence of a genetic role in autism while in 2007 it was believed to be one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions. Although the rise of parent organizations and the destigmatization of childhood ASD have affected how ASD is viewed, parents continue to feel social stigma in situations where their child’s autistic behavior is perceived negatively, and many primary care physicians and medical specialists express some beliefs consistent with outdated autism research.
It took until 1980 for the DSM-III to differentiate autism from childhood schizophrenia. In 1987, the DSM-III-R provided a checklist for diagnosing autism. In May 2013, the DSM-5 was released, updating the classification for pervasive developmental disorders. The grouping of disorders, including PDD-NOS, autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and CDD, has been removed and replaced with the general term of Autism Spectrum Disorders. The two categories that exist are impaired social communication and/or interaction, and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors.
The Internet has helped autistic individuals bypass nonverbal cues and emotional sharing that they find difficult to deal with, and has given them a way to form online communities and work remotely.Societal and cultural aspects of autism have developed: some in the community seek a cure, while others believe that autism is simply another way of being.
The Cost Of Lifelong Care For Those Who Have Autism Can Be Reduced By 66% With An Early Diagnosis
Autism is a tough medical disorder to deal with. For this reason, getting an early diagnosis is a great way to reduce medical expenditures and health costs. In fact, most autism facts and statistics confirm the overall benefits of an early diagnosis. And with an early diagnosis, the cost of lifelong care for people dealing with autism can be seriously reduced.
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Prison Is Even Worse When You Have A Disability Like Autism
State officials often fail to identify prisoners with developmental disorders, a group that faces overwhelming challenges behind bars, from bright lights to noises to social dynamics.
When Drew Harrison was in prison, just sitting in his cell overloaded his senses. To dim the fluorescent lights, he covered the bulbs with toothpaste or paper. To mask overwhelming odors, he wrapped his uniform around his head.
Once, when he asked to stay longer in the prison yard, Harrison, who has autism, said he was told he was being insubordinate and was put in restrictive housing. Another time, he said he requested placement in solitary confinement so he wouldnt have to interact with people, which he found stressful.
After two and a half years, Harrison, who had been convicted of sexually assaulting an ex-girlfriend, thought he would get out more than a month early from Greensville Correction Center in Virginia, because of good behavior. But because he had failed to sign up for a job while incarcerated earlier at another Virginia prison, he had forfeited his chance at early release, according to documentation from the Virginia Department of Corrections.
The prison environmentwith its loud, unpredictable noises, bright lights, unpleasant odors, complicated social dynamics and often byzantine bureaucracywould be difficult for anyone to navigate, but experts say that its particularly challenging for autistic people and people with similar disabilities.
What Information Is Counted
NASS is particularly interested in reporting on two indicators with respect to ASD estimates in Canada:
Prevalence: The total number of cases diagnosed compared to the total number of individuals in a population for a specific time period , supporting comparisons by age, sex, region, time and/or other factors.
Incidence: The number of newly diagnosed cases in a specific time period in a defined population. This may inform a more targeted understanding of any changes by age, sex, region, time and/or other factors. For NASS, the incidence year is attributed to the year in which cases are first diagnosed.
Figure 1 Incidence and prevalence illustration
Figure 1 Text description
Figure 1 presents a visualization of incidence and prevalence. A container represents the population. Dots outside of, and moving into, the container represent new incidence. These dots blend into the portion of the container that is filled. The filled area of the container represents prevalence. The dots once blended with the filled portion of the container collectively represent prevalence.
For ASD prevalence, the numerator is the total number of identified ASD cases collected from PT data the denominator is the total number of Canadian children and youth at that point in time. Incidence denominator would only include the total number of Canadian children and youth who are not included as ASD cases. Estimates can be expressed as a percentage a rate and, as a ratio .
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How Much Is A Fursuit
Fursuit making is a growing industry, with new costume makers who handcraft custom suits entering the market every week. A few dozen of these makers are highly respected and command prices up to $4,500 or more for a full suit, while there are several hundred more who charge less, usually between $600 and $10,000.
Are The Numbers Really True
Its been circulating that 80 to 90 percent of parents with autistic children get divorced, but are these numbers actually true? Weve conducted our own research and have come up with conflicting data.
A study published in theJournal of Autism and Development Disorders, evaluated data from nearly 78,000 children from the 2007 National Survey of Childrens Health, and it did not find any evidence to suggest that the parents of autistic children had an increased chance ofdivorce.
However, a 2010 study conducted by the University of Wisconsin at Madison found that parents with ASD children were nearly twice as likely to get divorced than couples without disabled children. The study revealed something interesting: the divorce rates in parents with disabled children did not increase until the children became teens or adults.
After closely evaluating the two above studies,Psychology Today had this to say, Even if statistics conflict, neither study suggests that the divorce rate is anywhere close to 80 percent for parents of ASD kids.
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Potential Explanations For The Rising Prevalence Of Autism
ASD was first introduced as a category for receiving special education in the United States in 1991. The gradual adoption and use of this reporting category by school districts has led to a gradual increase in the number of children identified with autism in school settings. Children with autism, who might have been served under the intellectual disability category or another disability category in the past, are increasingly being served under the autism category, a process referred to as diagnostic substitution . Evidence of diagnostic substitution of autism for ID can be seen in the special education data shown in . Additional evidence of this can be seen in epidemiologic data for 8-year-old children in metropolitan Atlanta, which showed a decline in ID without co-occurring ASD between 1996 and 2010 and also showed corresponding increases in ASD during the same period . shows this relationship.
Contrasting trends in the prevalence of ASD and ID. SOURCE: Braun et al., 2015.
A recent study from Sweden provides some evidence that the rise over time in autism diagnoses in that country among children born between 1993 and 2002 was steeper than the increase observed during the same period in the frequency of autism behavioral characteristics reported in telephone surveys of parents . The authors concluded that the increase in autism diagnoses could not be fully explained by the corresponding increase in reported autism behavioral characteristics in the population.
Should We Be Worried About How Many People Have Autism
Of course, with the news that autism rates are on the up and our explanations being so diverse that even the more autistic people having autistic children conspiracy sounds plausible, it was always expected that the hysteria brigade would arrive on the scene and plague our community with anti-vax protests and labels of a global crisis .
However, the increasing number of people on the spectrum isnt a negative and its definitely not an epidemic. Its an awakening an opportunity for more people to find support in the challenges to come and more chances for people to gain access to an identity which might once have been lost.
This is truly magnificent when its considered that, not 40 years ago, all a diagnosis meant was that the less independent autists were locked away in cells, whilst the rest of us would feel pressured to suppress our quirks.
But look at us now! Our enhanced understanding of the spectrum has seen autism therapies excel, its seen community members become industry leaders and its meant that activities that were once sealed off from us, like cinema trips and shopping experiences have been reopened under the awesomeness that is Autism Hour.
As such, when you hear that more and more autistic people are being diagnosed, dont be scared of the unknown and view it as a dam about to collapse. Instead, embrace the high autism rates as a natural progression and view the trapped water as returning right to where it always should have been.
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Foreword Message From The Chief Public Health Officer
As Chief Public Health Officer, I am pleased to present the National Autism Spectrum Disorder Surveillance System 2018 Report. This surveillance report is Made in Canada and provides a first reporting of national data and information to improve our understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Canada.
Approximately 1 in 66 children and youth are diagnosed with ASD in Canada. For families, an ASD diagnosis can involve significant emotional and financial challenges. For those in health, education and social services sectors, ASD is an important issue due to the resources those living with ASD require for intervention and treatment and due to the on-going impact on the health and well-being of Canadian children, youth, adults and their families and communities.
A critical aspect in responding to ASD in Canada is addressing key knowledge gaps in our understanding of the number and characteristics of people diagnosed with ASD both across regions and over time. To contribute towards this need, and consistent with its core role for health surveillance, the Public Health Agency of Canada has developed the NASS. The NASS is a collaboration of federal, provincial and territorial governments, working together to build a comprehensive picture of ASD in Canada.
It is my hope that this report will be a valuable resource for health, and other professionals, government organizations and researchers to inform ASD programs and support evidence-based decision making in Canada.
Do We See Barry And Iris Get Married
After they finally defeated Godspeed, Barry asked Iris to renew their vows together, which led to the finale ending on a happy note. It was never fair to Barry and Iris, but after a few years, they were finally able to have their own proper wedding, just as Oliver and Felicity did after the crossover.
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Autism Statistics Worldwide Reveal That One In 160 Children Is Autistic
While some people are diagnosed in childhood, others get proper diagnoses much later. Note that the disorder affects people differentlysome autistic people can live independently, while others require more support or life-long care. Whats more, autistic people and their families might incur considerable expenses as access to much-needed services is still inadequate in many places.
Associated Medical & Mental Health Conditions
- Autism can affect the whole body.
- Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder affects an estimated 30 to 61 percent of children with autism.
- More than half of children with autism have one or more chronic sleep problems.
- Anxiety disorders affect an estimated 11 to 40 percent of children and teens on the autism spectrum.
- Depression affects an estimated 7% of children and 26% of adults with autism.
- Children with autism are nearly eight times more likely to suffer from one or more chronic gastrointestinal disorders than are other children.
- As many as one-third of people with autism have epilepsy .
- Studies suggest that schizophrenia affects between 4 and 35 percent of adults with autism. By contrast, schizophrenia affects an estimated 1.1 percent of the general population.
- Autism-associated health problems extend across the life span from young children to senior citizens. Nearly a third of 2 to 5 year olds with autism are overweight and 16 percent are obese. By contrast, less than a quarter of 2 to 5 year olds in the general population are overweight and only 10 percent are medically obese.
- Risperidone and aripiprazole, the only FDA-approved medications for autism-associated agitation and irritability.
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What Is An Autistic Savant
On a mild fall day in 2009, an Englishman named Stephen Wiltshire climbed into a helicopter in New York City and was quickly whisked from the ground. For a brief 20 minutes as the chopper arced through the crisp blue sky dotted with puffy white clouds, Wiltshire gazed out the window, taking in the breadth and scope of the metropolis of 8.3 million people going about their business below.
After landing, Wiltshire was taken to the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. On a 19-foot long swatch of white paper, using a series of fine-tipped black pens, he began to draw.
Seven days later, a complete, building-by-building rendition of that aerial view, correct in every detail, was sprawled across the paper. Three hundred and five square miles of some of the most dense urban construction in the world had flown into Wiltshires brain in those twenty minutes in the air and flown back out through his hands onto the paperjust as it had looked that day.
Wiltshire is an autistic savant: an individual with autism spectrum disorder who also has extraordinary talents of mind and coordination, naturally exceeding the abilities of professionals who may have practiced similar skills for a lifetime. For Wiltshire, however, recalling and drawing the cityscapes in the utmost detail is as easy and unremarkable as making a random doodle.
Autism Statistics By Age
Today, autism diagnoses usually happen in early childhood, which may be why autism rates in children are higher than those in adults. However, because the definition of autism spectrum disorder has drastically evolved, many teens and adults could be living with undiagnosed ASD.
- Of those children with autism, 44% were evaluated by age 3.
- Children with a clinical diagnosis of autism has a median age of diagnosis of 4 years and 3 months.
- Prevalence estimates of autism in adults born between 1980 and 2012 are predicted to exceed 2.8% due to new diagnostic criteria. Thats about 3 out of every 100 adults in the U.S. in the future could carry a diagnosis based on this new criteria.
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Which Companies Are Autism
Many companies now actively hire people with autism. The software giant SAP has established itself as a leader in incorporating people with autism into the workforce. It aims to value and support diverse forms of thinking and problem solving. The program began in 2013 and has a 90 percent retention rate, according to the company website. Other businesses with autism programs include Microsoft, HP, Ernst and Young, Ford, and Home Depot.
Additional Data Sources And Variable Definitions
Population denominators were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics vintage 2019 bridged-race postcensal population estimates for 2018 . Surveillance areas at four sites comprised subcounty school districts, and public school enrollment counts were used to adjust the county population estimates described previously . When possible, sites linked data from children identified with ASD to birth certificate information from their state to obtain additional demographic information. Information about race and ethnicity was abstracted primarily from the medical or education records and, when missing, was augmented by birth certificate, administrative, or billing information. Children with race coded as other or multiracial were excluded from race-specific prevalence estimates, and the denominator data do not include those categories. Estimates for non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native children were not reported in most results because of small numbers.
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Autistic Children Are Highly Creative
Autism facts point out that autistic children might showcase great creativity. Following that, having creative outlets early on might help autistic people unlock and realize their potential.
As a parent, one could try introducing the following activities in their childs day:
- Making music with toy instruments
- Reading a book for fun
- Dancing freely or by following a tutorial or video
- Tracing shapes and objects for reference or drawing freehand