Causes: Psychological And Social Dimensions Of Autism Spectrum Disorder
ASD is a complex condition that does not appear to have a single cause. Instead, a number of biological contributions may combine with psychosocial influences. The origins of ASD were based on the unusual speech patterns of some individuals- namely, their tendency to avoid first-person pronouns such as I and me and to use he and she instead. For example, if you ask a child with ASD, Do you want something to drink? he might say, He wants something to drink . Thus this observation led some theorists to wonder whether ASD involves a lack of self-awareness.
Some people with Autism Spectrum Disorder do seem to have self-awareness and that it follows a developmental progression. Just like children without a disability, those with cognitive abilities below the level expected for a child of 18 to 24 months show little or no self-recognition, but people with more advanced abilities do demonstrate self-awareness. Self-concept may be lacking when people with ASD also have cognitive disabilities or delays, not because of the disorder itself.
Getting Evaluated For Adhd And Autism
If Gassner were the queen of everything, she says she would want to see every childs development professionally evaluated. In addition to providing insights about whether your child is autistic, has ADHD, or is neurodiverse in both ways, these assessments can help doctors unearth details such as whether your child has a learning disability or is gifted, she notes. This information can then be used to decide what, if any, additional supports, accommodations, or treatments your child might benefit from. But Gassner especially recommends having your childs development evaluated by a specialized pediatrician if youre seeing signs of certain differences.
Such evaluations can also be done through public school systems, but those are sometimes more limited in scope, Gassner says. However, if you opt to do the initial evaluation through the school, afterward you can request a private evaluation if you think the first one was inadequate. Even if you cant afford to pay for it, the school has to provide it, she says. If your kid is 3-years-old or younger, you can still get help through the public school system or the public health department.
When in doubt, check it out, she says. You have nothing to lose and everything to gain.
Then, once your childs condition if any has been correctly identified, you and the other adults in their life can find a game plan for continuing to help them thrive.
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Therapeutic Interventions For Co
Recent findings associate co-occurrence of ASD and ADHD in children with poorer quality of life and decreased adaptive functioning in comparison with data from children suffering from ASD only. Adolescents diagnosed with both ASD and ADHD appear to need psychiatric medication more frequently than young people with ASD or ADHD alone. Moreover, co-occurrence of ASD and ADHD seems to make individuals less sensitive to current therapies for either condition than patients with only one of the syndromes . Only a few specific studies on a targeted treatment for children, adolescents, and adults with comorbid ADHD and ASD have been performed to date. The improvement of current treatments will require a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying co-occurrence of ASD and ADHD (for review see 1, 81, 82, 175, 182].
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Adhd In Children With Asd
A significant percentage of children with ASD seeking services at clinical centers present with comorbid symptoms of ADHD, with rates ranging between 37% and 85% across studies conducted in the United States and Europe . ADHD was the third most common disorder identified in a community sample of 517years old children , with 31% of the sample meeting full ADHD criteria and another 24% with subsyndromal ADHD symptoms. This is lower than reported rates of ASD and ADHD in clinic samples . Very few studies have looked at the epidemiology of co-existing disorders in pre-school age children diagnosed with ASD. Two year-old twins from the Boston University Twin project were studied by Ronald et al. for autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors using Child Behavior Checklist answered by their parents. Controlling for cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, autistic like traits correlated positively with ADHD behaviors , a lower correlation than described for older children. In a recent survey by Carlsson et al. , 198 pre-school Swedish children with ASD who treated in a habilitation center, were assessed for such disorders. They found language problems in 78%, intellectual disability in 49%, below average motor function in 37%, and severe hyperactivity in 33%.
What Do Adhd Tics Look Like
They can be simple, like constant eye blinking, sniffing, grunting, or coughing. They can also be complex, like shoulder shrugging, facial expressions, head movements, or repeating words or phrases. The tics usually happen several times each day. Sometimes, kids with ADHD can have symptoms that seem a lot like tics.
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How Are They Different
Keep an eye on how your child pays attention. Children with autism struggle to focus on things that they don’t like, such as reading a book or doing a puzzle. And they may fixate on things that they do like, such as playing with a particular toy.
Kids with ADHD often dislike and avoid things they’ll have to concentrate on.
You should also study how your child is learning to communicate. Although kids with either condition may struggle to interact with other people, those with autism can have less social awareness of others around them. They often have a hard time putting words to their thoughts and feelings. And they may not be able to point to an object to give meaning to their speech. They find it hard to make eye contact.
A child with ADHD, on the other hand, may talk nonstop. They’re more likely to interrupt when someone else is speaking or butt in and try to monopolize a conversation. Also, consider the subject. Some kids with autism can talk for hours about a topic that they’re interested in.
A child with autism usually loves order and repetition. But a kid with ADHD might not, even if it helps them.
A child with autism might want the same type of food at a favorite restaurant, for instance, or become overly attached to one toy or shirt. They can become upset when routines change.
A child with ADHD doesn’t like doing the same thing again or for long times.
How To Diagnose Either Adhd Or Asd:
If you suspect your loved one has ADHD or autism, consult your doctor about the appropriate tests. There is no one factor that can determine if someone has either ASD or ADHD. You can begin by consulting your care provider, who may recommend you to a specialist.
Care practitioners may look for a pattern of behaviors over time to diagnose ADHD, such as:
- Distraction or forgetfulness
- Not keeping track of things or follow
- Having difficulty waiting for your turn
- Squirming or fidgeting
They will solicit comments from the childs parents , caregivers, and other providers. A doctor would also attempt to rule out any other potential reasons for the symptoms. An autism diagnosis begins with filling out a questionnaire, frequently regarding behaviors that started when they were very young. More evaluations, surveys, checkpoints, interviews, and observable activities may be included in future assessments and tools.
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Adhd And Autism Overlap Significantly
Of course, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder are two separate disorders. We all know that ADHD involves impaired functioning in the areas of attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, according to one study in Frontiers in Neuroscience, while autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social dysfunction and restrictive-repetitive behaviors. However, these same researchers estimate that 30-50% of those with ASD show ADHD symptoms , and a full two-thirds of those with ADHD exhibit symptoms of ASD. In other words, ADHD and autism symptoms overlap significantly.
The same study shows that ADHD and autism, moreover, both usually include problems with attention, communication with peers, impulsivity, and restlessness or hyperactivity. Many people with ADHD also show the same obsessive tendencies that those with autism exhibit they also have the same difficulties reading emotion and participating in social situations.
The diagnoses occur together so often, and exhibit so many of the same symptoms, in fact, that one team from the Netherlands proposed they were different varieties of the same disorder. Are we looking at one condition thats on a continuum, or two distinct conditions? I think we dont know the answer to that question, Geraldine Dawson, director of the Duke Center for Autism and Brain Development told Scientific American.
Adhd & Asd: Differences
So intertwined is the relationship between ASD and ADHD that some have wondered if ADHD is itself an expression of autism. While it is clear that this is not the case, the close overlap between the two conditions, as well as public misunderstandings of their symptoms, gives rise to such misconceptions. ADHD and ASD are both neurodevelopmental disorders, the causes of which are not fully understood.
But for all the similarities between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder, key differences make both conditions distinct.
For example, children who have ADHD typically struggle to pay attention to one subject and tend to get distracted quite easily. Children with autism may develop hyperfocus on one subject or object and will not focus on things of no interest.
An easy way to spot the difference between the two is when children do their homework. A child who has ADHD will likely not be able to concentrate on their assigned subject, even if it is a favorite. A child with autism will have an obsessive level of concentration on their favorite subject but will be unable to engage in subjects they are not interested in.
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Communication Differences In Adhd & Autism
Because of the neurodevelopmental nature of both conditions, communication is also affected but in different ways. Children with ADHD will likely:
- Talk without pausing or ceasing.
- Be active and animated when talking, sometimes disruptively so.
- Not notice when they are disturbing others.
- Interrupt others.
- Try to have the last word in every conversation.
But while autistic children are equally neurodivergent, their condition affects their communication abilities differently. Children with autism will likely:
- Struggle to express themselves, specifically when describing their feelings.
- Not use gestures or body language when communicating.
- Not make eye contact.
- Not understand when to let another person speak.
- Not respond to conversation cues or prompts offered by others.
Impact Of Comorbid Adhd And Asd: A Continuum
Research on co-occurring ADHD and ASD has been limited by diagnostic restraints, since according to DSM-IV, many works have excluded subjects with more than one developmental or psychiatric disorder . The study conducted by Sinzig et al. , reveals a large phenotypic overlay between ADHD and ASD. The two identified subtypes, hyperactive-communication impaired and inattentive-stereotyped, follow the DSM classification and could be the manifestation of two distinct neurochemical circuitsdopaminergic and serotonergicinvolved in the disorders. In view of this, the division of ASD into two-dimensional scales of social-communication and RRB dimensions, and of ADHD into inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms has high significance for the classification of developmental conditions.
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Is Adhd On The Autism Spectrum
Characteristics of autism spectrum disorders and ADHD sometimes overlap. More than half of children on the autism spectrum have symptoms of ADD, according to CHADD difficulty settling down, social awkwardness, the ability to focus only on things that interest them, and impulsivity. ADHD itself, however, is not part of the autism spectrum.
A mother I previously met summed up her confusion and eventual enlightenment: John is smart and quick to learn something new if he is interested, she says. But he has a terrible time focusing on things he doesnt find interesting. When this happens, he starts rocking or pacing around the room. For years, we thought it was ADHD, but, at his last evaluation, his teachers suggested that he might have a form of autism. After seeing a pediatrician, he received a diagnosis of Aspergers. Knowing he has it and working to manage the symptoms is a relief.
What Are Learning Disabilities
Learning disabilities affect the ability of children to speak or understand written language, perform mathematical calculations, coordinate movements, and concentrate on a particular task.
Learning disabilities occur in young children but usually arent apparent until they have to deal with the challenges of school.
As many as 10 percent of American children under the age of 18 are estimated to have some type of learning disability.
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What Are The Treatments
It can be hard for doctors to tell the conditions apart, but it’s important so your child gets the right treatment.
There’s no one-size-fits-all way to deal with ADHD. Younger kids start with behavior therapy, and the doctor may prescribe medication if symptoms don’t improve enough. Older kids will usually get both. ADHD symptoms, and their treatment, may change over time.
Different kinds of therapy — behavior, speech, sensory integration, and occupational, for example — can help kids with autism communicate and get along better. Medicine can’t cure autism, but it may make related symptoms like trouble focusing or high energy easier to manage.
Adhd In Autistic Adults: Outcomes
Greater functional impairments exist in autistic adults as more ADHD symptoms are present. Thats according to a recent study involving 724 autistic adults who were asked about the frequency and severity of behaviors associated with autism and ADHD, their quality of life, and other aspects of living. In all cases, comorbid ADHD explained measurable variances in adaptive behaviors compared to controls.3
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Diagnostic Criteria For Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder
A. A persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development, as characterized by and/or :
Six of the following symptoms have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is inconsistent with developmental level and that negatively impacts directly on social and academic/occupational activities:Note: The symptoms are not solely a manifestation of oppositional behavior, defiance, hostility, or failure to understand tasks or instructions. For older adolescents and adults , at least five symptoms are required.a. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities .b. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities .c. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly .d. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace .e. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities .f. Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort. .
2. Hyperactivity and impulsivity:
B. Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were present prior to age 12 years.
C. Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are present in two or more settings. .
D. There is clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with, or reduce the quality of, social, academic, or occupational functioning.
The Similarities Between Autism And Adhd
Both ADHD and autism share traits and symptoms. Like autism, ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. They both carry a genetic risk.
The phenotypic overlap between ADHD and ASD appears to be explained by aetiological overlap, at least partly, in terms of shared genetic influences between traits of both disorders. For example, individuals with ADHD and their siblings display more ASD symptoms than non-sibling controls, suggesting shared familiality. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2019
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Development Of Language According To The Stages Of Acquisition
The development of both language and communication is an intricate process affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Diagnostic criteria for NDDs often include impairments in communication and language skills. These complex disorders are polygenic with a relevant genetic contribution to both types of skills. Language acquisition is the process by which human beings acquire the capacity to perceive, comprehend, produce, and use words and sentences to communicate. Humans’ the early years, beginning at birth, are critical to future development of the skills required. Language acquisition needs to be stimulated in every way to generate a solid base to build upon as the child develops. There have been numerous investigations in this area, and several models for learning language have been developed based on neural networks, computational models, and other connectionist approaches
The first cycle
Developmental Period In Preschool Children
In the field of psychiatric disorders there has been a traditional delay in the systematic research dealing with infants and preschoolers in comparison with that studying school-age children, adolescents, and adults. To facilitate research on the preschool and infant ages, the development of clear and specific diagnostic criteria that can be confidently utilized within standardized measurements across a variety of samples is essential. In 20002002, an independent research committee elaborated the first Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age , with the aim of promoting systematic study of psychiatric disorders in younger children .
The DSM model, with some revision to address the child´s developmental level, appears to provide a valid means of differentiating typical behavior problems in preschool children from atypical disruptive conduct that is impairing. Systematic research is required to standardize the revision of current assessment tools so that they can be adapted for use with preschool children and to develop methods that are more clinically sensitive for determining a child´s development level and for employing observational data in assessment .
Therefore, in young children, it is very important to recognize changes that may occur in the early stages of learning, especially in language acquisition and behavioral symptoms, which could already be identified as prodromal symptoms, followed by a correct differential diagnosis of these entities.
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