Obstacles To Diagnosing Ds
If it looks like a duck, and it quacks like a duck guess what?
Parents sometimes face unnecessary obstacles in seeking help for their children. Parents have shared several reasons demonstrating this. Some of the more common include:
Problem:;Failure to Recognize the Dual Diagnosis
Result:;Failure to recognize the dual diagnosis except in the most severe cases.
This is frustrating for everyone who is actively seeking solutions for a child. If you are in this situation and feel that your concerns are not taken seriously, keep trying. The best advice is to trust your gut feeling regarding your child. Eventually you will find someone willing to look at all the possibilities with you.
What Conclusions Can We Draw
ICD-10 criteria for a diagnosis of autism
A. Abnormal or impaired development is evident before the age of 3 years in at least one of the following areas:
receptive or expressive language as used in social communication
development of selective social attachments or of reciprocal social interaction
functional or symbolic play
B. A total of at least six symptoms from , and must be present, with at least two from and at least one from each of and :
Qualitative abnormalities in reciprocal social interaction are manifest in at least two of the following areas.
failure adequately to use eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body posture, and gesture to regulate social interaction
failure to develop peer relationships that involve mutual interests, activities and emotions
lack of socio-emotional reciprocity as shown by an impaired or deviant response to other people’s emotions; or lack of modulation of behavior according to social context; or a weak integration of social, emotional, and communicative behaviors
lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people .
Qualitative abnormalities in communication are manifest in at least one of the following areas:
delay in, or total lack of, development of spoken language that is not accompanied by an attempt to compensate using gesture or mime as an alternative mode of communication
stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic use of words or phrases
Reprinted with permission
Can Dogs Have Down Syndrome Symptoms
You may be aware of some distinct signs of Down Syndrome in humans, and seeing one or more of those symptoms in your dog may prompt you to say: I think my dog has Down Syndrome.
But to be precise, those symptoms arent because of a chromosomal imbalance. Nevertheless, there are certain traits dogs with genetic abnormalities share with humans with Down Syndrome. Well discuss them in detail next.
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Is Down Syndrome In Dog Dangerous
Humans with this disorder additionally have more danger of possessing other ailments. This includes coronary illness and Alzheimers. There are three subtypes of Down syndrome condition too. These are called trisomy 21, translocation, and mosaicism. Now, we should look at how chromosomes work.
Chromosomes gather our DNA particles with the genetic material of the organism. Our chromosomes decide everything from our actual appearance to our ability to foster certain illnesses, either physical or mental disabilities.
Stability Across Time: From Age 2 To 5 Years
Eighteen children returned for a follow-up evaluation approximately 2 years later . The two children who were not observed at follow-up were dropped for the following reasons: one family withdrew due to time and scheduling constraints, and one child moved out of state and funds prohibited our travel to visit her family. Three other families expressed concern about the time commitment for the follow-up visit; however, they allowed the clinical psychologist to travel to the childs school to conduct the evaluation. None of the three children evaluated at the school presented with significant symptoms of autism at follow-up.
The same three children who met criteria on the ADOS-G and ADI-R at age 2 , also met criteria at age 4 years; however, symptom presentation was more dramatic for two of the children . L.K. continued to present with significant developmental delay and was observed to use her eye gaze effectively to modulate social interactions, share affect and attention with adults, and demonstrate some nonverbal reciprocity within sensorimotor play. Her social development, consisting of responsive dyadic exchanges, appeared to be congruent with her cognitive maturity. Therefore, she once again did not receive a clinical diagnosis of autism.
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Causes And Risk Factors
We do not know all of the causes of ASD. However, we have learned that there are likely many causes for multiple types of ASD. There may be many different factors that make a child more likely to have an ASD, including environmental, biologic and genetic factors.
- Most scientists agree that genes are one of the risk factors that can make a person more likely to develop ASD.4, 19
- Children who have a sibling with ASD are at a higher risk of also having ASD. 5-10
- Individuals with certain genetic or chromosomal conditions, such as fragile X syndrome or tuberous sclerosis, can have a greater chance of having ASD. 11-14, 20
- When taken during pregnancy, the prescription drugs valproic acid and thalidomide have been linked with a higher risk of ASD.15-16
- There is some evidence that the critical period for developing ASD occurs before, during, and immediately after birth. 17
- Children born to older parents are at greater risk for having ASD. 18
ASD continues to be an important public health concern. Like the many families living with ASD, CDC wants to find out what causes the disorder. Understanding the factors that make a person more likely to develop ASD will help us learn more about the causes. We are currently working on one of the largest U.S. studies to date, called Study to Explore Early Development . SEED is looking at many possible risk factors for ASD, including genetic, environmental, pregnancy, and behavioral factors.
Risk Factors For Social Withdrawal
When children’s play and communication skills are developing very slowly due to learning disability, there is a risk that their development becomes arrested, or ‘stuck’.
For example, a child may sit and just roll a car back and forward, or line up bricks or sit and flap an object because he or she does not know how to play more creatively. Progress will only be made if someone – parent or sibling or teacher – plays with the child and shows him or her how to play in more rewarding and advanced ways. Even if play is not more advanced, if someone plays with the child, taking turns in a simple activity such as rolling a ball or running balls down a runway, this will prevent the child developing the habit of engaging in a repetitive activity that does not lead to any learning or progress.
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Does That Mean That Your Child Has Adhd
It may, but more often it means that a medical problem needs to be addressed or that your childs educational program or communication method needs some adjustment. In children with Down syndrome who have difficulty paying attention, ADHD is a diagnosis of exclusion. Other problems must be ruled out first.
How Consistent Are Ados
The psychologists on the team reviewed all data from the participants developmental history, standardized testing and laboratory measures, and determined that two children presented with comorbid autism and Down syndrome. One of these children exceeded the cutoffs for autism on both the ADOS-G and ADI-R , and the other exceeded cutoffs for spectrum on the ADOS-G and communication on the ADI-R . These two children will be described in more detail below.
The third child who was classified as having autism spectrum by the ADOS-G was not classified as having a clinical diagnosis of autism. Her developmental delay was significant and she had very poor motor skills and difficulty initiating movements. Her difficulties in joint attention, imitation, play and coordination of nonverbal behaviours were attributed by the clinicians to her overall cognitive and motor impairments. Notably, she demonstrated a reciprocal social smile, directed her facial expressions towards adults, and shared affect during play, providing evidence of dyadic social interaction.
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Can Dogs Get Down Syndrome
Down Syndrome occurs when a human fetus develops an extra set of chromosomes; more precisely, chromosome # 21. The additional chromosome set causes certain physical and mental changes in the fetus, and a human born with those features is said to have Down Syndrome.;
Down Syndrome affects one in every 700 Americans. Since it isnt a very rare illness, you might think: do dogs get Down Syndrome?
Not exactly. Although congenital disorders are prevalent among dogs, veterinary experts have never come across a dog with Down Syndrome. Some say that dogs with extra chromosomes never develop beyond the fetal stage, while others believe dogs are impervious to this condition.;
The dog genome isnt as well understood as the human genome, and the reason we havent come across a dog with Down Syndrome is that we probably havent studied their genetics as much as we have researched human genetics.
But for now, scientists believe that Down Syndrome is one genetic issue dogs dont face.
Ruling Out Significant Hearing And/or Visual Loss As A Cause Of Attentional Problems
To monitor hearing, an auditory brainstem response test or otoacoustic emission should be performed early in the childs life as a baseline. Hearing screens should be performed annually until three years of age, and every other year thereafter. Children with abnormal hearing evaluations should be seen by an ear-nose-throat physician to manage treatable causes of hearing loss.
A child with Down syndrome should be evaluated by an eye doctor during the first year of her life, and yearly thereafter. Some children may need more frequent followups depending on their visual diagnosis.
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Dads Appreciating Down Syndrome
Massachusetts D.A.D.S., an affiliate of MDSC, is an organization of fathers of children with Down syndrome. D.A.D.S.s mission is to assist and support each other and their families through fellowship and action.
Members come together at monthly meetings to share insights, stories, and experiences that are unique to fathers of children with Down syndrome. They invite expert speakers to discuss medical, educational, financial, social and many other challenges that affect their childrens lives.
D.A.D.S. objectives are:
- To create a network of fathers willing to develop a program based on the needs of the fathers themselves.
- To enhance a fathers knowledge and provide resources for engaging with children and individuals with Down syndrome.
- To enhance personal advocacy skills.
- To heighten a familys ability to cope with the unique challenges of raising a child with Down syndrome.
- To provide a safe atmosphere of support where fathers can openly share.
For more information visit the Massachusetts D.A.D.S. website.
What Treatments Are Effective For Autistic Children
To diagnose autism in children with a learning disability you need:
Guidelines from Patricia Howlin 2000
Despite the fact that the number of children with autism in the general population is increasing and that people have been looking for effective treatments for more than 20 years, there is no evidence that any treatment can ‘cure’ the underlying cause of the social impairment. There is some evidence that educational and management strategies may help children to progress, to adapt to their difficulties and to reduce the incidence of behavior difficulties that they may show. The advice of Pat Howlin, based on many years of work in this field, is again a good starting point
In order of priority, the key messages for families are
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What Types Of Communication Difficulties Can Look Like Adhd
People with Down syndrome may have many barriers to effective communication. The receptive language skills of children with Down syndrome are often much stronger than their expressive language skills . Parents often comment, He knows what he wants to tell us, he just cant seem to put the words together or we cant make out what he is saying. Classroom participation is thus more difficult, as well. A child may express his or her frustration by acting out or by inattention.
Pets With Down Syndrome
Its easy to look up pets and wild animals with Down Syndrome on the internet. But the truth is, Down Syndrome is a human disorder that is far more than odd facial features. Most animals that people claim to be suffering from Down Syndrome are facing some other physical deformity.
The occurrence of Down Syndrome in pet animals isnt something medical and veterinary experts have observed. But the reason why we only see Down Syndrome in humans may be the depth of how weve studied human genetics.
In contrast, we have a very limited understanding of genetics, DNA, and chromosomal issues in dogs, cats, and other pets. But many dogs suffer from congenital problems that may seem like Down Syndrome. Lets discuss some such dog breeds.
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How To Tell If Your Dog Has Down Syndrome
Down Syndrome is a congenital disorder, meaning it develops even before birth. So how can you tell if your dog has Down Syndrome?
In humans, Down Syndrome is quite obvious. A person with this chromosomal dysfunction will experience stunted growth, cognitive impairment, flat-looking facial features, and round eyes.
Its possible for a dog to have one or more of these features, but even then, you cannot chalk their condition up to Down Syndrome. Lets take a look at what symptoms of Down Syndrome your dog can exhibit.
How Common Is Add In Children With Down Syndrome
The frequency of ADHD in children with Down syndrome is not known with certainty. However, ADHD-like symptoms are more common in young children with Down syndrome than they are in children from the general population. Compounding symptoms such as stereotypy , anxiety or extreme irritability in the presence of ADHD-like symptoms may indicate another disorder such as autism, bipolar disorder or obsessive compulsive disorder.
Uncomplicated ADHD is common in younger children with Down syndrome. However, many school age children with ADHD frequently have other behavioral conditions including oppositional defiant disorder, disruptive behavior disorder or obsessive compulsive traits.
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We Are Now A Family Impacted By The Dual Diagnosis Of Down Syndrome And Autism
The chances of being diagnosed with both Down syndrome and autism;are hard to quantify. Some sources say that;a person with Down syndrome has a higher likelihood than the general population, and others estimate a lower than average risk. Either way, as people become more aware of this dual diagnosis, its possible that more children are getting diagnosed accurately.
Both Down syndrome and autism can be challenging disabilities separately, without the combination, however when combined the challenges are multiplied and can be quite complex, says the Down Syndrome-Autism Connection. In my experience, thats true. In our situation, I was very much aware of the possibility of dealing with Down syndrome and autism together.
I had read the book, When Down Syndrome and Autism Intersect, which describes this population as withdrawn, probably non-verbal, and likely to stim a great deal. Ben has a very different presentation than the book describes; he is not withdrawn or unable to socialize, but rather, unable to use judgement or understand the concept of sharing. He does speak, but his ability to communicate with others is limited. ;His stimming is a fairly mild feature for him, and is more subtle than the typical hand flapping or rocking.
What Types Of Educational Problems Can Look Like Adhd
Children with Down syndrome have a wide range of learning styles. A childs educational team may need to try more than one method of presenting material before finding the one that works best for the child. If material is presented in a way that is not compatible with a childs learning style that child may appear bored, fidgety and hyperactive.
The level of the material may also be a problem. If a child is presented with concepts that are too difficult for his or her cognitive level, he or she might tune out and appear inattentive. A child who is bored with overly easy material also may attend poorly and act out.
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The Fact That Ben Doesnt Have The More Severe Typical Presentation Of Autism With His Down Syndrome Delayed His Diagnosis And Prevented Us From Getting Necessary Therapies Which Will Help Him To Be As Successful As Possible
Because Bens presentation is so different from the book I read;on the subject, I struggled to accept his autism diagnosis. I tended to;describe it as a way to get appropriate therapy rather than an accurate description of who my son is. It was about six months later when we attended a picnic with our local Down Syndrome Association that it hit home that Ben definitely;has autism. We hadnt attended a Down Syndrome Association picnic in years because it is quite challenging to bring Ben out to social gatherings, so attending that picnic provided me with a shock.