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Do C Sections Cause Autism

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Caesarean Section cause of Autism?

While the study was not designed to prove that C-sections cause autism and ADHD, it did provide evidence of a strong link between the procedure and these disorders. It is not entirely clear why babies delivered via C-section might be more likely to be autistic or have ADHD. One possibility has to do with the fact that babies who are delivered vaginally receive beneficial strains of bacteria from their mothers gut during delivery and these are known to bolster a babys immunity. It might be a lack of these beneficial bacteria during birth that sets the stage for the development of autism and/or ADHD.

Another theory to consider is that the issue isnt directly related to the C-section itself, but why a woman is undergoing that procedure. Oftentimes, C-sections are recommended by obstetricians if the mother-to-be has a condition like hypertension or diabetes, which may influence the development of the fetus in utero. Additionally, C-sections are sometimes born of necessity if something is going very wrong during the delivery. In those cases, its possible that the trauma taking place could be a precipitating factor for autism or ADHD.

So What Should We Take Away From This Study

The study provides a strong basis for concluding there is a statistical association between cesarean section delivery on one hand, and autism and ADHD on the other. But thats about it.

Why this link exists remains unknown, but it is almost certain that a cesarean delivery alone does not contribute to the odds of a child developing autism or ADHD.

Instead, it is likely that other pregnancy factors play a role in this relationship, as well as genetic factors that may interact with the environmental influences during pregnancy to contribute to brain development.

This story originally appeared on The Conversation. It has been slightly modified to reflect Spectrums style.

Epidural Use At Birth Not Linked To Autism Risk Study Finds

Refuting an earlier study, researchers found that epidural anesthesia, commonly administered for pain relief during labor, does not increase the risk for autism in children.

A study has shown that undergoing an epidural during birth is not associated with a higher rate of later autism diagnosis.ravipat/

Having an epidural during childbirth is not associated with a greater risk of autism in the child, according to a study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the University of Manitoba.

The study, which was online April 19 in JAMA Pediatrics, helps resolve questions raised by an earlier, widely criticized report on the topic.

We did not find evidence for any genuine link between having an epidural and putting your baby at increased risk of autism spectrum disorder, said the studys senior author, Alexander Butwick, MD, associate professor of anesthesiology, perioperative and pain medicine at Stanford. The study should help reassure both physicians and pregnant women about the favorable safety profile of epidurals, he added.

Epidurals are the most common form of pain relief for childbirth, used by about three-quarters of women in labor in the United States. Autism is a developmental disorder that affects one in every 54 children nationwide.

Recommended Reading: Autistic Phenotype

Mouse Models And The Implantation Of In Vitro Fertilized Eggs

WT C57BL/6J and ICR mice were purchased from Japan SLC . In this study, ND mice from WT dams were designated ND mice. C/S was performed on gestational day 19 . To avoid the effects of anesthesia, euthanasia was performed via cervical dislocation just before C/S. The mice delivered by C/S were designated C/S mice. OXT was treated perinatally, as described in the Drug treatment subsection. Prenatally OXT-treated C/S offspring were designated preOXT-C/S. OXT was also administered postnatally in ND and C/S mice, which were designated ND-OXT and C/S-OXT, respectively. L-368,899, an OXT receptor antagonist, was also administered prenatally. After treatment, ND pups were designated LND. Postnatally OXT-treated LND mice were designated LND-OXT mice.

OXT-KO C57BL/6J mice were obtained using sperm from OXT-KO mice supplied by Professor Nishimori of Fukushima Medical University. We tested C57BL/6J mice born to WT or OXT-KO dams.

OXT-KO mice were used to examine the effects of OXT during delivery on the offspring. IVF of WT C57BL/6J mice was performed using eggs derived from 4- or 8-week-old superovulated females and sperm derived from 8-week-old males . These IVF embryos were implanted to pseudopregnant WT or OXT-KO female C57BL/6J mice. The gestational duration of IVF mice was 20 days, 1 day longer than that of normal pregnancy. Naturally delivered mice from WT or OXT-KO dams at GD20 were used for comparison . Postnatally OXT-treated IVF-OKO mice were designated IVF-OKO-OXT mice.

Is There Really A Link Between C


When my doctor suggested I was a candidate for a C-section because I was carrying twins in breech position, I didn’t flinch. I was happy to do what was recommended for our safety. Of course, I would have hesitated if I felt like I could be putting the babies in danger in any way.

Headlines frequently seem to blare scary news that can be dauntingand confusing!to expecting mamas. For instance, the initial findings of a new study published online in the journal JAMA Psychiatry suggest a scary link between cesarean deliveries and autism: Results appear to show that children born by C-section were 21 percent more likely to be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

However, those of us mamas who delivered by C-section will be relieved to know this: The C-section/autism association did not hold up in further analysis of siblings. What that means it that the first, scary-seeming results were not actually causal, and instead were likely related to other factorslike genetics or environment.

Autism spectrum disorder is thought to affect nearly two thirds of one percent of children all around the world, and here in the U.S., experts put that figure about two and a half times higherat about 1.5 percent. Various factorsincluding C-sectionhave been investigated as possible causes.

The study concluded that “…because the association between birth by and did not persist in the sibling control analysis, we can conclude that there is no causal association.”

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What Are These Conditions

Autism and ADHD are what we call neurodevelopmental conditions. This means people with these conditions have clear differences in behavioral development, which we presume are due to brain differences.

In the case of autism, behavioral differences occur in the part of the brain primarily responsible for social and communication development. For ADHD, these differences affect the ability to control and direct attention.

The exact reasons why the brain develops differently are not entirely clear. Studies in twins, which are able to help us understand the role of genetic and environmental influences on a given trait, have shown that both autism and ADHD involve a large genetic component.

However, these studies have also indicated that environmental influences, such as bacterial or viral infections during pregnancy, may play a role in the development of these conditions, most likely through interactions with genetic make-up.

But What Does It Mean

The temptation with findings like this is to draw a causal link between one factor and the other . Unlike so many other areas of science, the conclusions are easily understood and the implications appear obvious.

But the simplicity is deceptive, and it says more about our desire for simple answers than it does about the truth of the science.

The studies included in this meta-analysis used a branch of science called epidemiology, which is concerned with how often conditions and diseases occur in different groups of people and why, and how to prevent or manage them.

Epidemiological studies survey a large population and find a pattern of results that indicate a certain factor may be coinciding with a certain disease more often than we would expect by chance.

In this case, there is the observation that people with autism or ADHD are more likely to be born by cesarean section than we would otherwise typically expect.

But this kind of epidemiological study is unable determine if one factor causes another .

There are two key reasons why.

First, we cant rule out that a third factor may be influencing this association. We know, for example, that cesarean sections are more common for pregnant women who are obese and older, and who have a history of immune conditions such as asthma.

The second reason is that these kind of epidemiological studies are unable to provide what scientists call a mechanism that is, a biological explanation as to why this association may exist.

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Effects Of C/s Delivery On Social Behaviors In Both Male And Female Offspring

We first examined the effects of C/S on offspring sociability compared with naturally delivered mice. The numbers of ultra-sonic vocalization calls emitted by pups separated from their foster dams, ICR mice, were measured at postnatal day 8. The total number of calls of the C/S mice was significantly lower than that of ND mice . At 8 weeks of age, the ND mice spent significantly more time around stranger mice than around the empty cage in the three-chamber social interaction test, whereas the C/S mice did not this was true in both male and female mice . Thus, the mice born by C/S delivery showed social abnormalities.

Figure 1

Effects of cesarean section delivery on pups sociability. Number of ultra-sonic vocalization calls at postnatal day 8 . Approaching time to the stranger cage and the empty cage in the three-chamber social interaction test. . Male offspring, blue circles female offspring, pink circles. Data represent the mean±SEM. The numbers in parentheses indicate the numbers of mice tested and their litters in each group. *p< 0.05, ***p< 0.001.

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Do Epidurals Cause Autism?

A new study linking autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to Cesarean section births is causing a media stir, but a deeper look at the data reveals that the headlines may be unnecessarily alarming readers.

A new report analyzed the results of 61 studies of more than 20 million C-sections throughout 19 countries, and found an overall 33 percent increase in the likelihood of a child developing autism and a 17 percent higher risk of ADHD compared to those born vaginally.

Still, the results suggest judicious use of C-sections, researchers report.

The team, led by scientists at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, investigated data on millions of deliveries since 1999. Although that large data pool is significant, when the overall prevalence of these disorders is factored in just 1 percent for autism and 7 percent for ADHD the increase in odds is still extremely low.

Its not very dramatic. Its statistically significant, but from the population standpoint, the risk is not huge, Dr. Pankhuree Vandana, a pediatric psychiatrist at Nationwide Childrens Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, who was not involved in the study, told Reuters. And it absolutely does not prove that Cesarean section is causing autism or ADHD. The risk factors that lead to a C-section may also be risk factors that lead to autism or ADHD.

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Remind Me What Are These Disorders

Autism and ADHD are what we call neurodevelopmental disorders. This means they have clear differences in behavioural development, which we presume are due to brain differences.

In the case of autism, behavioural differences occur in the part of the brain primarily responsible for social and communication development. For ADHD, these differences affect the ability to control and direct attention.

The exact reasons why the brain develops differently are not entirely clear. Studies in twins, which are able to help us understand the role of genetic and environmental influences on a given trait, have shown that both autism and ADHD involve a large genetic component.

However, these studies have also indicated that environmental influences, such as bacterial or viral infections during pregnancy, may play a role in the development of these conditions, most likely through interactions with genetic make-up.

Read more:What causes autism? What we know, dont know and suspect

Experts Dispute New Study Linking C

A new review of the evidence has found that caesarean sections are associated with autism and ADHD. But the results are being disputed by clinicians and experts who say that C-sections don’t cause developmental disorders.

Authored byMilly Evans
30-Aug-19·3 mins read

The analysis, published in JAMA Network Open, looked at previous studies including data from more than 20 million births, finding that there was a marginally increased risk of a child developing autism or ADHD if they were delivered through caesarean section. The findings combined 61 studies from 19 countries dating back to 1999. However, the study did not suggest that caesarean deliveries cause autism or ADHD, only that there was an association.

The association found was very small. Children delivered by caesarean section were 1.33 times more likely to develop autism and 1.17 times more likely to develop ADHD. The risk of being diagnosed with autism or ADHD is already low, at around 1% and 7% for autism and ADHD respectively. This means that the risk of a child developing autism increases to around 1.33% if they are born via caesarean section rather than vaginally.

Both ADHD and autism are developmental disorders. Autistic spectrum conditions affect how someone communicates with and relates to other people. ADHD affects behaviour including concentration, hyperactivity and difficulty staying focused

This study was published in JAMA Network Open.

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Do C Sections Cause Autism

Do C Sections Cause Autism. According to the centers for disease control and prevention , about. A facet of this contentious.

Autism, also called autism spectrum disorder , is a complicated condition that includes problems with communication and behavior. Many people wonder what causes the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, characterized by an inability to connect to other people and repetitive, often unusual behaviors. Rehabilitation of children with autism using prof. Autism spectrum disorders are a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. Causes of autism spectrum disorder are still unknown.

Do Caesarean Sections Cause Autism Or Adhd

Do C

Experts urge caution over a new study that says there is a link.

by Fiona Wright | 4 September 2019

A new study that combines data from over 20 million births has claimed that a caesarean section delivery is associated with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder .

The research from Sweden published in the journal JAMA Network Open linked caesarean births with neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically a 33 per cent higher chance of autism.

The report said:

“In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 61 studies comprising more than 20 million deliveries, birth by caesarean delivery was significantly associated with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.”

But obstetrician, Dr Alex Polyakov says the study is weak and urges people to take it cautiously.

“The statistical analysis that was performed in this research may have shown an association. It does not mean that the caesarean section is the cause of the disease,” he says.

Queensland obstetrician Gino Pecoraro backs this sentiment and urges people to not be alarmed by the research.

“Unfortunately what sounds like a good scientific study does not really help the situation but just creates anxiety and panic,” he says.

“This study is certainly interesting and begs further prospective research be undertaken to try and answer the question of whether delivery by caesarean section increases the burden of mental health issues in children.

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And It Absolutely Does Not Prove That Cesarean Section Is Causing Autism Or Adhd

Generally, about 1 to 2% of the population is autistic. Causes of autism spectrum disorder are still unknown. It should not take the place of consultation with a qualified these influences appear to increase the risk that a child will develop autism. I think being autistic also contributes to my aptitude in problem solving and pattern recognition, which can help me research a highly specialised subject and give talks on it. Being autistic does not mean you have an illness or disease. The disorder can make it difficult to participate in daily life. Children born via cesarean section may be more likely to develop autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, a new analysis indicates. Speaking to mamamia, dr andrew whitehouse, head of autism research at telethon kids institute, noted that the study simply confirms what. Rather, it could be that the factors that lead to the. However, it’s important to keep in mind that increased risk is not the same as cause. It means your brain works in a different way from other people. Both genetics and environmental factors likely to play a role, and many theories are disproven. Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects a person’s ability to communicate, interact and behave appropriately autism is characterized by impairments in social skills, communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior such as hand flapping and an insistence.

Data Analysis And Producing Figures

All data are expressed as the mean±standard error of the mean . Data sets were first checked for normality using the ShapiroWilk test. Next, equal variances were checked using the F test in the case of two-group comparisons, or the Bartletts test in the case of multiple comparisons. If the data sets had normal distributions, parametric methods were used test or Dunnetts test). If not, non-parametric methods were used . To compare two groups, the two-tailed Students t test for data sets with equal variances or AspinWelch t test for data sets with non-equal variances were used. For the 3-CSI tests, the two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test was used, because the time spent with the stranger mouse and with the empty cage were paired data. Cohens d values were calculated to express the effect size for significant pairwise comparisons as previously described. To compare three or more groups, Dunnetts test was used . Dunns test was used in Fig. c and Supplementary Fig. ad,g,h, b,c,g,h, a,dg. Furthermore, two-way ANOVA tests were used in Fig. g,h and in Supplementary Figs. f and f. All analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism software . P-values< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. All statistical results are described in Supplemental Table 1. Further information can be found in the Supplemental information. All figures were produced using Adobe Illustrator software .

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