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How Wide Is The Autism Spectrum

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How Are The Speech And Language Problems Of Asd Treated

WEB EXTRA: Ryker Martin explains the autism spectrum

If a doctor suspects a child has ASD or another developmental disability, he or she usually will refer the child to a variety of specialists, including a speech-language pathologist. This is a health professional trained to treat individuals with voice, speech, and language disorders. The speech-language pathologist will perform a comprehensive evaluation of the childs ability to communicate, and will design an appropriate treatment program. In addition, the speech-language pathologist might make a referral for a hearing test to make sure the childs hearing is normal.

Teaching children with ASD to improve their communication skills is essential for helping them reach their full potential. There are many different approaches, but the best treatment program begins early, during the preschool years, and is tailored to the childs age and interests. It should address both the childs behavior and communication skills and offer regular reinforcement of positive actions. Most children with ASD respond well to highly structured, specialized programs. Parents or primary caregivers, as well as other family members, should be involved in the treatment program so that it becomes part of the childs daily life.

Domain B: Repetitive Or Restricted Behaviour Interests Or Activities

Restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities in at least two of the following:

  • Repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech.
  • Insistence on things being the same, inflexible and insistent on routine, or ritualised patterns of verbal or non-verbal behaviour.
  • Highly restricted, fixated interests that are uncommonly intense or focussed.
  • Extremely reactive or not reactive at all to sensory input, or an unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.

What Are The Treatment Options For Autism Spectrum Disorder

There are three main types of treatment for ASD:

  • Educational and behavioral interventions
  • Medication
  • Alternative therapies

Most clinicians prefer to begin with non-medical therapies to manage the symptoms that hinder social and academic success and lead to a turbulent home life. Behavioral therapy and early-intervention therapy both help children learn new skills to better interpret the world with the challenges of ASD.

When these interventions arent sufficient, medication may help. A class of medicines called atypical antipsychotics often helps with motor restlessness, repetitive behaviors, and sleep disturbances in children with autism. Typical prescriptions include aripiprazole , quetiapine fumarate , and risperidone (Risperdal, which is the only one approved by the FDA for treating behaviors associated with autism.

Many people with chronic conditions like ASD supplement traditional therapies and medications with alternative treatments, though their effectiveness is not well researched. Parents of children with ASD and adults with the condition should consult with a physician before taking any supplements or trying any alternative treatment methods.

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Children’s Learning In Indigenous American Communities

Nonverbal communication is commonly used to facilitate learning in indigenous American communities. Nonverbal communication is pivotal for collaborative participation in shared activities, as children from indigenous American communities will learn how to interact using nonverbal communication by intently observing adults. Nonverbal communication allows for continuous keen observation and signals to the learner when participation is needed. Culture plays an important role in nonverbal communication, and it is one aspect that helps to influence how learning activities are organized. In many Indigenous American Communities, for example, there is often an emphasis on nonverbal communication, which acts as a valued means by which children learn. In a study on Children from both US Mexican and European American heritages who watched a video of children working together without speaking found that the Mexican-heritage children were far more likely to describe the children’s actions as collaborative, saying that the children in the video were “talking with their hands and with their eyes.”

It is important to note that while nonverbal communication is more prevalent in Indigenous American Communities, verbal communication is also used. Preferably, verbal communication does not substitute one’s involvement in an activity, but instead acts as additional guidance or support towards the completion of an activity.

Signs And Symptoms Of Asd

Leveraging large genomic datasets to illuminate the ...

People with ASD have difficulty with social communication and interaction, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. The list below gives some examples of the types of behaviors that are seen in people diagnosed with ASD. Not all people with ASD will show all behaviors, but most will show several.

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Diagnosis Of Autism In Children

Autism in children is diagnosed through observation by a multidisciplinary team of the following health professionals:

  • paediatrician
  • psychologist or psychiatrist
  • speech pathologist.

Some children will show signs of autism by the age of two and will be diagnosed then. Other may be diagnosed when they are older. The earlier autism can be diagnosed the sooner therapy can begin. Early intervention has been shown to improve outcomes for autistic children.

Signs Of Autism In Babys Second Year

As some autistic children reach age 2, they may regress or lose language skills. Others may simply have no words by 16 months or no two-word phrases by 2 years of age. Children may only speak the same words repeatedly or they may repeat what they hear verbatim. Other signs of autism are organizing toys in certain ways, as opposed to playing with them. They may also refrain from engaging in make-believe play or engaging with other children. Two-year-olds with autism may also be unable to recognize other people’s feelings or facial expressions.

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Imprecise Effect Size Estimates And Lack Of Power In Small Sample Size Studies

Compounding the problem of utilizing one-size-fits-all models like the casecontrol paradigm is the issue of small sample size studies. Over the last several decades, it has been common practice to conduct and publish small sample size studies. Small sample studies can be problematic from the viewpoint that statistical power is low for all but the largest effects. Small sample size also means that estimated sample statistics vary considerably relative to their population parameters due to more pronounced sampling variability. In Fig. , we show simulations that illustrate the issues of low power and imprecise estimates of effect size so that they are clear and salient to readers. A common casecontrol study with n=20 per group results in an effect size that varies considerably relative to the true population effect. This variability in estimated effect size at small samples is consistent irrespective of what the true population effect is. Only with very large sample sizes can we see that the sample effect size hones in with some precision on the true population effect size. The histograms shaded in red in Fig. also show the limited statistical power one has at smaller effect sizes and small sample size.

Fig. 3

Love On The Spectrum Continues To Change The Way Society Views People With Autism

Chapel Haven Offers a Wide Spectrum of Services for Adults with Asperger Syndrome

Laugh, cry and gain a new perspective on love

Collegian File Photo

By Corinne Arel, Collegian ContributorOctober 4, 2021

Society has the preconceived notion that people with disabilities cant desire a love life or have romantic relationships. Netflixs Love on the Spectrum combats these stereotypes by telling the stories of people with autism on their quest for love.

Love on the Spectrum follows the stories of Australian young adults with autism. The show connects them with a dating specialist, Jodi Rodgers, and sets them up with potential love interests.

The show captures what its like for people on the autism spectrum to date. The audience gains a better understanding of the challenges they face when looking for love and forming new relationships. Michael, a fan favorite from season one, shares his feelings about not being in a relationship with the audience.

I just cant bear the thought of being single my entire life because its lonely, its boring and its also unfulfilling, Michael said.

Love on the Spectrum also conveys how autism impacts the lives of people with the diagnosis.

Sometimes I might have a bit of confusion, and sometimes I might need a lot of help and support, Ronan, a 21-year-old said.

Learning how autism affects people from the perspective of someone with it allows the viewer to clearly understand the reality of autism and let go of misconceptions.

Corinne Arel can be reached at and followed on Twitter

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Comprehension Of Nonverbal Facial Cues

A byproduct of the work of the Pittsburgh/Yale/Ohio State team was an investigation of the role of nonverbal facial cues in heterosexual nondate rape. Males who were serial rapists of adult women were studied for nonverbal receptive abilities. Their scores were the highest of any subgroup. Rape victims were next tested. It was reported that women who had been raped on at least two occasions by different perpetrators had a highly significant impairment in their abilities to read these cues in either male or female senders. These results were troubling, indicating a predator-prey model. The authors did note that whatever the nature of these preliminary findings the responsibility of the rapist was in no manner or level diminished.

The final target of study for this group was the medical students they taught. Medical students at Ohio State University, Ohio University and Northeast Ohio Medical College were invited to serve as subjects. Students indicating a preference for the specialties of family practice, psychiatry, pediatrics and obstetrics-gynecology achieved significantly higher levels of accuracy than those students who planned to train as surgeons, radiologists, or pathologists. Internal medicine and plastic surgery candidates scored at levels near the mean.

Recognizing Autism Through Autism Training

Because ASD can present itself anywhere within its wide spectrum of symptoms and severity, recognizing autism can be challenging. No blood or imaging tests exist for this disorder, leaving clinicians to rely on only their own observations of behavior and development. Diagnosticians consider detailed information gathered from caregivers, careful observation and standardized developmental screening and comprehensive diagnostic evaluation tools.

An experienced professional can make reliable diagnosis by the time the patient is two years old but, because of the wide spectrum of ASD, many children with ASD do not receive a diagnosis until they are much older. This means many children are not getting the early treatment they need for a successful outcome.

Autism training helps clinicians recognize signs of ASD and suggest treatment courses that address the spectrum of ASD. Autism training modules focus on specific colors that fall within the spectrum of autism disorders.

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Diagnosis Of Autism In Adults

It is not unusual for autistic people to have reached adulthood without a diagnosis.

Sometimes people will discover some information about autism that makes them think That sounds like me. They may then choose to talk to a health professional for a diagnosis, or they may not.

You may choose to seek a diagnosis for suspected autism if:

  • you have been diagnosed with a mental health condition and/or intellectual disability during childhood or adolescence, but think that you may have autism
  • you have struggled with feeling socially isolated and different
  • your child or another family member has been diagnosed with autism and some of the characteristics of autism sound familiar to you.

If you wish to seek an assessment for autism, you can:

  • talk to your GP who may refer you to a psychologist or psychiatrist with experience in the assessment and diagnosis of autism
  • talk to a psychologist or psychiatrist with experience in the assessment and diagnosis of autism .

A psychologist or psychiatrist with experience in the assessment and diagnosis of autism will ask you about your childhood, and experiences at school and as an adult. They may also do some psychological or psychiatric testing. A speech therapist may also be consulted to assess your social communication skills. All of this information will be used to help make a diagnosis.

In Relation To Verbal Communication

Exploring Autism Spectrum Disorders

When communicating face-to-face with someone, it’s sometimes hard to differentiate which parts of conversing are communicated via verbally or non-verbally. Other studies done on the same subject have concluded that in more relaxed and natural settings of communication, verbal and non-verbal signals and cues can contribute in surprisingly similar ways. Argyle, using video tapes shown to the subjects, analysed the communication of submissive/dominant attitude, , and found that non-verbal cues had 4.3 times the effect of verbal cues. The most important effect was that body posture communicated superior status in a very efficient way. On the other hand, a study by Hsee et al. had subjects judge a person on the dimension happy/sad and found that words spoken with minimal variation in intonation had an impact about 4 times larger than face expressions seen in a film without sound. Therefore, when considering certain non-verbal mannerisms such as facial expressions and physical cues, they can conflict in meaning when compared to spoken language and emotions. Different set ups and scenarios would yield different responses and meanings when using both types of communication. In other ways they can complement each other, provided they’re used together wisely during a conversation.

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Family Support For Autistic People

The family members of autistic individuals are also likely to need some support. Having an autistic child can have a significant effect on parents, who may react to the diagnosis in a variety of ways, including relief, shock, grief, anger and guilt.

Feelings of stress, confusion and anxiety are also common in parents who are caring for an autistic child. It can be valuable for parents to consider joining a support group or participating in counselling.

For more information visit the Better Health Channel page Autism spectrum disorder tips for parents.

An Answer To The Psychologists Who Suggest It Is

Late at night, when Im alone, I sometimes ponder what it means to be autistic. Do I experience sounds and smells differently from an allistic person? Scientific studies suggest I do. If that is the case, whose perception is correct mine, theirs, or both? At one time, doctors assumed the allistic view of the world was the correct one, and autistic perspectives were wrong or delusional.

That question lies at the heart of what autism is.

As an autistic person I believe my experience of the world is just as valid as anyone elses. When I associate colors with sounds, or see details others cant, my experience of those things is richer than most, and that is a gift. When I look at a machine and see a problem that is inscrutable to an allistic, that too is a gift. When I look at a person and fail to discern their wish for my sympathy or attention, that can be a disability.

For me, that is the mix of ability and disability that is autism. My different perceptions have allowed me to solve problems that could not be cracked by allistic thinkers. Not because I am smarter, but because I think differently and work with subtly different sensory inputs. 99% of the problems of the world may not require a mind like mine, but 1% do. Perhaps thats why there is a sprinkling of us in the population.

There are those who argue that those diagnostic spectrums are too broad too.

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The 3 Levels Of Autism Explained

Autism is a diagnosis that often carries a certain connotation. Those who are unfamiliar with the nuances of autism spectrum disorder may assume that all children on the spectrum participate in repetitive behaviors, dont make eye contact, and are largely non-verbal. While these signs can certainly be present, there are many children who fall within the spectrum whose symptoms are far milder and even those whose symptoms are more severe. Its a wide and diverse range of possible complications, and despite what some may think, children within the spectrum do not all fall into neat little categories. For that reason, the classifications of ASD have changed significantly over the years.

Shifting From The One

Autism Spectrum Disorder

As an illustrative example, we take our own recent work on mentalizing ability in adults with autism. From a casecontrol perspective, autistic adults perform on average lower on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test compared to matched typically developing controls . However, taking a stratified approach, we find that the autistic adult population can be reliably split into subtypes who are completely unimpaired on the RMET versus those who are highly impaired . Thus, in this example, while replicable on average casecontrol effects appear, a stratified approach that takes into account heterogeneity can isolate higher impact and more precise considerations about mentalizing as measured by the RMET in the adult autistic population.

Fig. 2

Casecontrol vs stratified model example with adult autism and mentalizing ability. This figure reports data from Lombardo et al. on two independent datasets of adults with autism and performance on an advanced mentalizing test, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test . a , b Casecontrol differentiation and the standardized effect size for each dataset are shown. cf RMET scores and standardized effect sizes from the same two datasets after unsupervised data-driven stratification into five distinct autism subgroups and four distinct TD subgroups. Autism subgroups 12 are highly impaired on the RMET, while autism subgroups 35 are completely overlapping in RMET scores with the TD population

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What Are Some Common Signs Of Asd

Even as infants, children with ASD may seem different, especially when compared to other children their own age. They may become overly focused on certain objects, rarely make eye contact, and fail to engage in typical babbling with their parents. In other cases, children may develop normally until the second or even third year of life, but then start to withdraw and become indifferent to social engagement.

The severity of ASD can vary greatly and is based on the degree to which social communication, insistence of sameness of activities and surroundings, and repetitive patterns of behavior affect the daily functioning of the individual.

Social impairment and communication difficultiesMany people with ASD find social interactions difficult. The mutual give-and-take nature of typical communication and interaction is often particularly challenging. Children with ASD may fail to respond to their names, avoid eye contact with other people, and only interact with others to achieve specific goals. Often children with ASD do not understand how to play or engage with other children and may prefer to be alone. People with ASD may find it difficult to understand other peoples feelings or talk about their own feelings.

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