Autism Linked To Inherited Gene Mutations Particularly From Dad
Scientists use whole-exome sequencing to pinpoint autism genetic link.
Autism Linked to Fathers Age
April 4, 2012 Joslyn Gray, 38, of Drexel Hill, Pa., resisted her pediatricians recommendation that she have her 4-year-old son tested for autism. She didnt think he fit the classic description of autism.
He showed emotion. He showed affection toward her. That wouldnt be possible for someone with autism, Gray believed.
I didnt understand what autism was and the vast spectrum of the disorder, said Gray, who blogs for Babble.com, a Disney-owned online parenting magazine . I got him evaluated because I didnt want to be seen as a mom in denial.
Grays son was diagnosed with Aspergers syndrome a higher functioning form of autism at age 4. In hindsight, Gray said she could see how his symptoms progressed until his diagnosis, and his diagnosis prompted her to have her daughter tested too. Two years later, in January 2012, her daughter, now 10 years old, received the same diagnosis as her brother.
The latest statistics released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that autism spectrum disorder increased by 23 percent from 2006 to 2008 to include nearly one in 88 children.
Experts said the growing numbers reflect an all-encompassing disorder that just as often includes children who speak or dont speak, make eye or dont make eye contact, recognize their names or not.
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When Your Child Has Both Adhd And Autism
Dr. William Dodson is a psychiatrist who spent his career specializing in both ADHD and autism. When a patient has both, Dodson takes a direct and honest approach: The concept I try to get across to patients and their parents is that ADHD and autism are two separate and distinct conditions that happen to be found together much more frequently than would be expected by chance alone. The patients have two life-long conditions that will affect every moment of their lives.
For people with co-existing ADHD and ASD, treating the ADHD is a means to an end, says Dodson. The world is a classroom for people with ASD, and they have to be ready to observe and practice what theyve learned.
Toward that end, medication to treat ADHD is a must, Dodson says. Few people with both ADHD and ASD succeed without medication to remove the additional obstacle of ADHD from their path.
When Adhd Runs In Families
Does genetics play a role in ADHD and can ADHD be inherited? There are now several dozen case studies showing that ADHD does run in families.
When a child is diagnosed with ADHD, it often pays to look at the adults in the family, too. ADHD sometimes runs in families, and parents or grandparents may also have it.
When Michele Novotni was pregnant with her son, Jarryd, she might have guessed that he would become a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder . After all, while in the womb, he was so active. Before he was 2 years old, he was diagnosed with ADHD, and he began taking medication for the disorder at age 5.
As Jarryd’s family began dealing with the challenges of his ADHD, Novotni contemplated whether her father might also be afflicted with the same disorder, even though it had never been diagnosed. “We didn’t know why my father had never worked up to his potential,” says Novotni, PhD, a clinical psychologist in Wayne, Pa.
Before long, Novotni’s father was, in fact, diagnosed with ADHD at the age of 65. He has been treated with a combination of strategies, including medication and personal coaching, and “it has made a huge difference in his life,” she says.
Among Novotni’s relatives, the family tree of ADHD doesn’t stop there. One of her sisters has ADHD. So do several of her nephews.
ADHD Running in Families
The Parent-Child Connection
Getting Treatment for ADHD
Understanding the Genetics of ADHD
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Boys Are At Higher Risk For Aspergers Than Girls
Boys are about four times more likely to develop an autism spectrum disorder, and according to some studies, up to 11 times more likely to develop Aspergers syndrome compared with girls.
Researchers arent sure exactly why boys are at a higher risk. Studies have suggested links between male fetal testosterone levels and autism spectrum disorders.
Some experts have also proposed theories that girls are simply underdiagnosed or that they are better protected genetically.
Continue Learning About Learning Disabilities
Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.
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Brain Structure And Function
Large-scale neuroimaging studies have identified robust structural differences associated with ASD and ADHD, demonstrating both common and disorder-specific brain alterations. In both ASD and ADHD, cases showed reduced subcortical volumes and cortical thinning in temporal regions . Reduced surface areas were specific to ADHD , whereas ASD showed increased cortical thickness in frontal regions . Evidence regarding differences in diffusion weighted imaging and resting state fMRI are based on smaller studies demonstrating wide-spread alterations in fractional anisotropy and less consistent changes in rsfMRI .
Structural and functional brain imaging will be collected to determine if neurobiological differences exist as a function of symptom-based data-driven clusters. All scans will be performed using Siemens Skyra 3 T scanner following previously established protocols . Data processing pipelines will include extensive correction for in-scanner motion which is the most prevalent MRI artefact in paediatric populations.
Is Autism Inherited From The Mother Or Father
Cell defects or the autism-causing gene may be inherited by either the mother or the parent, or both. Below is an explanation of both causes.
These are not the result of either parent but of an early gestation error in code translation. Most mutations are irrelevant and have little effect. Any of the remaining ones are hazardous and do not affect the colours or otherwise of the retina. Most of the above are lethal, the fetus does not fully gestate and miscarries, in extreme cases, leads to pregnancy or even an infant, which dies shortly after birth. The other few that lead to defects or even in extreme circumstances to beneficial modifications are the kind of mutation were about here, ADS is a non-fatal yet very distinct variation in the human brain in either event.
Inherited by either or both parents:
A dominant trait may be inherited by one parent , and each parent can or may not add it to the part of their DNA with which their child inherits. If one of these conditions are met, the infant possesses the trait. In order for an infant to have a recessive trait, all parents should contribute to that trait. Theres no proof why this mutation is only present on the Y chromosome, so it may come from either male or female parents but we dont know if its dominant or recessive, so we cant tell for sure that both is the only response.
How genetic mutations occur naturally?
Which parent is responsible for autism?
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Genetics: One Contributor To Addiction
It has been found that genetics can play a role in the development of addiction. Genes may contribute to the vulnerability to substance abuse in a number of ways: genetic mutations that lead to alterations in the structure and function of the brain may influence the way in which the individual responds to exposure to the substance.6For example,the gene aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 has been known to be a protective factor of alcohol dependence by affecting the way that alcohol is broken down in the body. Moreover, individuals may be genetically more likely to exhibit problems with impulsivity, poor emotion regulation skills, executive dysfunction, or other temperamental characteristics that may increase their individual risk for using substances.7
While certain genes have been proposed to contribute to addiction, including the interaction of multiple genes, it is uncertain whether a true genotype of addiction can ever been discovered, due to the complex personality and environmental factors that also shape addiction.20
Be Aware Of Differences
If your child does inherit ADHD, it might manifest in a very different way to your ADHD. For example, if you have hyperactive-impulsive ADHD and your child has inattentive ADHD, your behavior and challenges will be different even though you both have ADHD. Also, ADHD often looks differently depending on the sex of your child. If your son has hyperactive-impulsive ADHD, they could be very physically active, while your daughter might be hyper-talkative and verbally impulsive.
Finally, even if you are the same sex as your child and have the same ADHD presentations, you can still have different ADHD behaviors and challenges. However, knowing that these differences exist can increase your awareness and help you detect ADHD symptoms in your child early.
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Autism Spectrum Disorder Family Health History And Genetics
If someone in your family has autism spectrum disorder , you may be more likely to have a child with ASD. ASD can look very different from person to person, so taking a careful family health history can be important for early diagnosis. Early screening and diagnosis of ASD can ensure that children receive the services they need for better outcomes.
Autism And Adhd Do Run In Families: Having An Older Sibling With Either Disorder Raises Risks Daily Mail
Having an older sibling with autism raises a younger siblings risks by 30-fold, and ADHD in an older sibling is liked to a 13-fold greater risk, a new study found. The exact causes of both autism and ADHD elude scientists, but we know that both genetic and environmental factors play roles in the development of the
Having an older sibling with autism raises a younger siblings risks by 30-fold, and ADHD in an older sibling is liked to a 13-fold greater risk, a new study found.
The exact causes of both autism and ADHD elude scientists, but we know that both genetic and environmental factors play roles in the development of the disorders.
Experts estimate that as many as 1,000 genes can contribute to autism risks, accounting for as much as 83 percent of the disorder, and ADHD is considered highly heritable.
Studies done on twins and conducted in Scandinavia have suggested close sibling risks, a new University ofCalifornia, Davis study established clear evidence that having one child with either disorder raises the risks that younger siblings will too.
In fact, children whose older siblings are either on the autism spectrum or have ADHD are at far greater risks of having either disorder themselves, the new study reveals.
Having an older sibling with autism or ADHD greatly increases the risks that younger children in the same family will have one or both disorders, new research reveals
Researchers at the UC Davis found that that instinct to look to family is correct.
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Asd And Adhd Case Definition
We used information from the National Patient Register , in which diagnoses were recorded according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and ICD-10 and from the Prescribed Drug Register . A recorded diagnosis of ASD in the NPR at age 1 year was used to define ASD cases., A recorded diagnosis of ID at age 3 years in ASD cases was used to define low- vs high-functioning ASD cases. According to ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria, an ASD diagnosis explicitly precludes an ADHD diagnosis. Hence, we used additional information from the PDR for the definition of ADHD cases, as these are almost exclusively prescribed for ADHD in children and adolescents in Sweden. A recorded diagnosis of ADHD in the NPR or a recorded prescription of an ADHD medication in the PDR at age 3 years was used to define ADHD cases.
Two additional definitions of cases were used in sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of our results. First, ADHD case definition was based only on information from the NPR, without using information from the PDR, to ensure that the possible overlap reflects clinically diagnosed cases. Then ASD and ADHD cases were defined as individuals having at least two recorded diagnoses in the NPR, without using information from the PDR, to test whether a stricter definition of cases would lead to similar results.
Double Diagnosis: When Your Child Has Adhd And Autism
Nearly a third of children with autism have ADHD symptoms, yet until recently, medical guidelines didn’t allow for both to be diagnosed in the same child. Learn how one mom found the comprehensive treatment her son needed for both disorders.
Beau Baldassari, 8, part of a military family, showed his parents early on that he didn’t respond well to the frequent moves that are part of a military career. “One month before the move, he became angry all the time, defiant, just the definition of a behavior problem,” said Beau’s mother, Ally Baldassari. She didn’t know it at the time, but Beau was showing the first indications that he was suffering from both autism and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.
Medical guidelines regarding autism, ADHD, and attention deficit disorder have changed in recent years. Previously, psychiatrists were unable to diagnose a child as having autism or autism spectrum disorders , as well as ADHD or ADD. But a study published in the June 2013 edition of the journal Autism has found that nearly one in three children with autism also have some form of ADHD symptoms. Faced with this, the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , which lays out guidelines for diagnosing psychiatric disorders, now allows doctors to issue a joint diagnosis of autism and ADHD.
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Do Autism Run In Families
There is ample evidence that autism continues to run in families. Genes that alter during pregnancy alter the childs susceptibility to autism. There are several gene mutations that can be passed on by a parent these include autism, addiction problems, depression, alcoholism, and even bipolar disorder .
The review reported that families with children with autism have a greater frequency of the disease prevalence. Changes in those genes enhance the childs vulnerability to autism. to their child can inherit one or more of these changes if a parent has these genes . These genetic modifications take place within an embryo during the various stages of development. Even the variations in the bulk of these genes are not by themselves harmful. By advancing the chance for disturbance, they deepen the risk for the problem.
Characterisation Of Asd Adhd And Comorbid Symptoms
Dimensional ASD symptomatology is measured through parent-report measures capturing social communication , social competence , and autism symptomatology overall . Dimensional traits central to ADHD are captured through parent-report questionnaires, and an in-house observation checklist for ADHD behaviours completed during ADOS-2 coding. Parent rated measures of attention and inattention , hyperactivity , impulsivity, and overall ADHD symptomatology , are comprehensively assessed, alongside an additional measure of attention appropriate for children with intellectual disability . Teachers are invited to complete the SRS-2, SDQ, and Conners Teacher Rating ScaleRevised , although completion rates are typically lower than for parent report. Height, weight, head circumference, and joint mobility and hypomobility are also recorded for every child.
Comorbidities commonly observed in ASD and ADHD are captured in all children, including anxiety and depression . Conduct problems and oppositional defiant problems are also indexed . Level of current cognitive function is determined using age appropriate Wechsler intelligence scales . See Additional file for clinical assessment protocol.
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Alignment Of Asd And Adhd Neurocognitive Endophenotypes With The Rdoc Matrix
A number of neurocognitive traits have been identified as areas of difficulty for children with ASD and ADHD. Some neurocognitive domains are associated with similar levels of impairment across ASD and ADHD, while others appear to differentiate between them. Although atypical neurocognitive profiles are frequently observed at a group level, not all individuals within a disorder show divergence across all behavioural and neurocognitive domains. This heterogeneity has hindered clinical translation of group-level findings to individuals . Within ASD and ADHD, deficits are seen on tasks of sustained attention and arousal , cognitive control, for example inhibition , social processes such as emotion recognition and/or theory of mind , visual and verbal working memory , and reward sensitivity and . Sensorimotor abnormalities are common in ASD. In particular, oculomotor deficits are robustly associated with ASD , with emerging evidence for oculomotor impairments in ADHD . These areas of neurocognitive divergence broadly align with five RDoC matrix domains: positive valence systems, cognitive systems, arousal/regulatory systems, social processes and sensorimotor systems .
When They Occur Together
There may be a reason why symptoms of ADHD and ASD can be difficult to distinguish from one another. Both can occur at the same time.
Not every child can be clearly diagnosed. A doctor may decide only one of the disorders is responsible for your childs symptoms. In other cases, children may have both conditions.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , 14 percent of children with ADHD also have ASD. In one study from 2013, children with both conditions had more debilitating symptoms than children who didnt exhibit ASD traits.
In other words, children with ADHD and ASD symptoms were more likely to have learning difficulties and impaired social skills than children who only had one of the conditions.
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New Sibling Study Shows Autism Runs In Families
Posted August 15, 2011
This morning I read a new study which addressed the question of autism in siblings – how common is it? The findings will be of vital interest to many most especially young families with an autistic infant.
Earlier studies and “conventional wisdom” suggested the incidence of autism in siblings was in the 3-10% range. This new study shows those numbers to be very far from the mark.
Overall, scientists found autism in 19 percent of the younger siblings. However, the incidence is higher in families with two or mote autistic kids. In that case, a new sibling‘s chances of being autistic rose to more than 32 percent.
Being a boy makes a difference too. “Only” 9% of girl siblings were autistic, as compared to 26% of boys. I found this difference quite interesting because I often wonder if autism is under-diagnosed in females. In this study, all the kids were screened with the gold-standard ADOS or ADIR tests prior to age three. So even with top-notch screening, we still have more autistic boys.
Those are some strikingly high percentages. As high as they are, and knowing autism is a spectrum condition, I have to wonder how many non-diagnosed siblings will eventually turn out to have less severe but still noticeable “differences.”
The conclusion is inescapable: autism does run in families. According to these findings, the more autistic kids you have, the more you are likely to keep having.