Problems With Communication And Social Interaction
ASD can involve a range of issues with communication, many of which appear before age 5.
Heres a general timeline of what this might look like:
- From birth: trouble maintaining eye contact
- not responding to their name
- not displaying facial expressions reflective of their emotions
- : not engaging in basic interactive games, like peek-a-boo or pat-a-cake
- not using hand gestures, like hand-waving
- not sharing their interests with others
- not pointing or looking where others point
- not noticing when others appear sad or hurt
- not engaging in pretend play, like caring for a baby doll or playing with figurines
- not playing turn-taking games, like duck-duck goose
Additionally, autistic children might have trouble expressing their feelings or understanding those of others starting at 36 months.
As they age, they might have difficulty talking or very limited speaking skills. Other autistic children might develop language skills at an uneven pace. If theres a particular topic thats very interesting to them, for example, they might develop a very strong vocabulary for talking about that one topic. But they might have difficulty communicating about other things.
As autistic children begin talking, they might also talk in an unusual tone that can range from high-pitched and sing-songy to robotic or flat.
While hyperlexia does not always accompany autism, research suggests nearly 84 percent of children with hyperlexia are on the spectrum.
Ners Of Autistic People
Some autistic people will successfully maintain relationships. However, like most relationships, there are challenges.
An adults diagnosis of autism often follows their childs diagnosis of autism or that of another relative. This double whammy can be extremely distressing to the partner who has to cope simultaneously with both diagnoses. Counselling, or joining a support group where they can talk with other people who face the same challenges, can be helpful.
An autistic partner, like any partner, will have strengths and weaknesses when it comes to relationships. A non-autistic partner may find that there are communication breakdowns, such as misunderstandings or finding that your partner is not able to predict your feelings. An autistic partner may need routine, order and time to pursue their hobbies.
Relationship counselling with a counsellor or psychologist experienced at working with autistic people can assist couples to develop strategies and to communicate more effectively with each other.
How Often Asd Occurs
CDCs Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network has been estimating the number of 8-year-old children with ASD in the United States since 2000.
ASD occurs in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. It is more than 4 times more common among boys than among girls.
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Treatments To Improvecommunication For Those With Autism
There is nospecific treatment or commonly accepted approach to treating ASD. As thesituation can vary with each individual, uniform therapies are not alwayssuccessful at improving ASD conditions.
Thereare, however, strategies, when tailored to someones specific needs and ASDdiagnosis, that prove helpful in allowing them to better cope with autism.
Thesignificant treatments and interventions for improving communication amongthose with ASD include:
What Are The Different Types Of Autism
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition is published by the American Psychiatric Association . Clinicians use it to diagnose a variety of psychiatric disorders.
The most recent fifth edition of the DSM was released in 2013. The DSM-5 currently recognizes five different ASD subtypes, or specifiers. They are:
- with or without accompanying intellectual impairment
- with or without accompanying language impairment
- associated with a known medical or genetic condition or environmental factor
- associated with another neurodevelopmental, mental, or behavioral disorder
Someone can receive a diagnosis of one or more specifiers.
Before the DSM-5, autistic people may have received a diagnosis of:
- autistic disorder
- pervasive development disorder-not otherwise specified
- childhood disintegrative disorder
Its important to note that a person who received one of these earlier diagnoses has not lost their diagnosis and will not need to be reevaluated.
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Asperger S Syndrome Among Other Autistic Spectrum Disorders
Spectrum Disorders The autism spectrum disorder is neurobehavioral deterioration that involves language developmental disorder combined with low social interaction skills and repetitive behaviors. The severity of the disorder varies from mild, moderate, and severe, and the diagnosis tends to be changeable according to several factors such as the severity and the kind of therapy that the child received during early years. There is an increased prevalence of the disorder among children within the last decade
Diagnosis Of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Early signs of this disorder can be noticed by parents/caregivers or pediatricians before a child reaches one year of age. However, symptoms typically become more consistently visible by the time a child is 2 or 3 years old. In some cases, the functional impairment related to autism may be mild and not apparent until the child starts school, after which their deficits may be pronounced when amongst their peers.
Social communication deficits may include1:
- Difficulty appreciating their own & others’ emotions
- Aversion to maintaining eye contact
- Lack of proficiency with use of non-verbal gestures
- Stilted or scripted speech
- Difficulty making friends or keeping them
Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors may include1:
- Inflexibility of behavior, extreme difficulty coping with change
- Being overly focused on niche subjects to the exclusion of others
- Expecting others to be equally interested in those subjects
- Difficulty tolerating changes in routine and new experiences
- Sensory hypersensitivity, e.g., aversion to loud noises
- Stereotypical movements such as hand flapping, rocking, spinning
- Arranging things, often toys, in a very particular manner
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Social Communication / Interaction Behaviors May Include:
- Making little or inconsistent eye contact
- Appearing not to look at or listen to people who are talking
- Infrequently sharing interest, emotion, or enjoyment of objects or activities
- Not responding or being slow to respond to ones name or to other verbal bids for attention
- Having difficulties with the back and forth of conversation
- Often talking at length about a favorite subject without noticing that others are not interested or without giving others a chance to respond
- Displaying facial expressions, movements, and gestures that do not match what is being said
- Having an unusual tone of voice that may sound sing-song or flat and robot-like
- Having trouble understanding another persons point of view or being unable to predict or understand other peoples actions
- Difficulties adjusting behaviors to social situations
- Difficulties sharing in imaginative play or in making friends
How Are The Speech And Language Problems Of Asd Treated
If a doctor suspects a child has ASD or another developmental disability, he or she usually will refer the child to a variety of specialists, including a speech-language pathologist. This is a health professional trained to treat individuals with voice, speech, and language disorders. The speech-language pathologist will perform a comprehensive evaluation of the childs ability to communicate, and will design an appropriate treatment program. In addition, the speech-language pathologist might make a referral for a hearing test to make sure the childs hearing is normal.
Teaching children with ASD to improve their communication skills is essential for helping them reach their full potential. There are many different approaches, but the best treatment program begins early, during the preschool years, and is tailored to the childs age and interests. It should address both the childs behavior and communication skills and offer regular reinforcement of positive actions. Most children with ASD respond well to highly structured, specialized programs. Parents or primary caregivers, as well as other family members, should be involved in the treatment program so that it becomes part of the childs daily life.
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How Does Autism Affect People
Autism is a hidden or invisible disability. You cant see if someone is autistic just by looking at them and some people might not have been diagnosed when you meet them. There are some behaviours and ways of communication that an autistic person may use but these aren’t universal as every autistic person is different.
The characteristics of autism vary from one person to another, but there are four main areas of difference.
What Is The Difference Between Autism And Adhd
Autism and ADHD are sometimes confused with one another.
Despite some similarities, ADHD is not considered a spectrum disorder. One major difference between the two is that people with ADHD do not tend to lack socio-communicative skills.
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Free Brochures And Shareable Resources
- Autism Spectrum Disorder: This brochure provides information about the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of ASD. Also available en español.
- Digital Shareables on Autism Spectrum Disorder: Help support ASD awareness and education in your community. Use these digital resources, including graphics and messages, to spread the word about ASD.
Autistic People May Act In A Different Way To Other People
Autistic people may:
- find it hard to communicate and interact with other people
- find it hard to understand how other people think or feel
- find things like bright lights or loud noises overwhelming, stressful or uncomfortable
- get anxious or upset about unfamiliar situations and social events
- take longer to understand information
- do or think the same things over and over
If you think you or your child may be autistic, get advice about the signs of autism.
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How Does Asd Affect Communication
The word autism has its origin in the Greek word autos, which means self. Children with ASD are often self-absorbed and seem to exist in a private world in which they have limited ability to successfully communicate and interact with others. Children with ASD may have difficulty developing language skills and understanding what others say to them. They also often have difficulty communicating nonverbally, such as through hand gestures, eye contact, and facial expressions.
The ability of children with ASD to communicate and use language depends on their intellectual and social development. Some children with ASD may not be able to communicate using speech or language, and some may have very limited speaking skills. Others may have rich vocabularies and be able to talk about specific subjects in great detail. Many have problems with the meaning and rhythm of words and sentences. They also may be unable to understand body language and the meanings of different vocal tones. Taken together, these difficulties affect the ability of children with ASD to interact with others, especially people their own age.
Below are some patterns of language use and behaviors that are often found in children with ASD.
Autism Symptoms In Adults At Work
Symptoms of ASD vary greatly from person to person based on the severity of the condition. These or similar manifestations of ASD may be apparent at work:
- When youre having a conversation with your boss, you prefer to look at the wall, her shoes, or anywhere but directly into her eyes.
- Your co-workers say that you speak like a robot.
- Each item on your desk has a special place, and you dont like when the cleaning company rearranges it to dust.
- You are really good at math, or software coding, but struggle to succeed in other areas.
- You talk to your co-workers the same way you talk with your family and friends.
- During meetings, you find yourself making involuntary noises, like clearing your throat over and over.
- When talking with your boss, you have difficulty telling if he is happy with your performance or mad at you.
In addition, autistic individuals may exhibit extraordinary talents in visual skills, music, math, and art. And roughly 40 percent of autistic individuals have average or above-average intelligence.
If you experience these or similar symptoms of ASD, consult a doctor or mental-health professional for a formal autism evaluation and learn more about treatment options for autism symptoms in adults.
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How Autism Impacts Daily Life
One of the most surprising facts about autism is that it can affect people in different ways.
Individuals with autism have varying degrees of disability, which means that everyone experiences this condition differently.
One person could be non-verbal, whereas another person could have an intellectual disability.
Autism also impacts how someone learns, reacts to emotions, and interacts with other people.
Another surprising fact is that there are 10 times as many boys with autism as girls.
This means that 1 in 42 boys has autism, while 1 in 189 girls has autism.
This may be because testosterone causes the brain to grow more slowly during development, making it easier for autistic children to learn language skills later on in life.
There Are More New Job Opportunities Than Ever Before
Many large corporations have begun to see the value of hiring employees on the autism spectrum. The accounting firm Ernst & Young, for example, has a neurodiversity program that reaches out to autistic adults who have the math skills and focus others may lack. Other companies with autism-specific outreach programs include SAP and Ford.
In addition, quite a few smaller companies are building their business around autistic strengths and abilities. Rising Tide is a carwash company in Florida that has attracted a lot of attention for its autism focus, but its by no means alone.
Its worthwhile keeping an eye on autism employment news, as opportunities are popping up all the time.
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How Common Is Autism Spectrum Disorder
Based on most recent CDC report, ASD is estimated to affect about 1 in 54 children, with boys being more likely to have ASD than girls. There were more than 5 million adults in the US, or 2.21% of the population, with ASD as of 2017. Government statistics suggest that the prevalence of ASD has risen 10% to 17% in recent years.
Recognizing The Signs And Symptoms Of Autism
Autism often presents by a childs third year and the symptoms are present throughout the childs lifetime. While symptoms can improve over time, this is often the result of early, aggressive intervention and therapeutic techniques designed to assist autistic individuals with social and communication skills.
Some symptoms may appear within the first few months after birth, but others may not make an appearance until twenty-four months of age or later.
Some children with autism experience development and milestones that are within normal ranges until around eighteen months to two years of age. At that point, new skills are no longer gained when they should be, and skills that have been developed may suddenly no longer be present.
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Some Of The Cognitive Characteristics In The Autism Spectrum
The autism spectrum includes a number of conditions including Autistic Disorder and Aspergers. In this post I will use the term autism.
There seems to be controversy about whether autism is a disorder of development and therefore represents a bunch of abnormal characteristics or whether it is a separate cognitive phenotype that represents a different way of communicating and interacting with the world. It may be that autism researchers still need to answer this question. However, as a clinician I prefer the latter concept because it allows autism to be sold much more positively. Michelle Dawsons blog provides good examples of a positive world view of autism.
This blog aims to provide a brief summary of some of the cognitive characteristics that are common in autism. It is by no means an exhaustive list. I have selected some of those things I have seen in autists that are most relevant for the education content.
Theory of Mind
Autists are described as having poor theory of mind. Essentially, this means that they have difficulty understanding other peoples perspectives or getting inside their heads. Another way of putting it that seems to appeal to some individuals with autism is that they lack social recognition software. They lack the ability to recognise social situations and what is going on in those situations, what the appropriate responses to people might be, and the awareness of why people respond to their behaviour in certain ways.
Causes And Risk Factors
Researchers dont know the primary causes of ASD, but studies suggest that a persons genes can act together with aspects of their environment to affect development in ways that lead to ASD. Some factors that are associated with an increased likelihood of developing ASD include:
- Having a sibling with ASD
- Having older parents
- Having certain genetic conditions
- Having a very low birth weight
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People With Autism Tend To Die Younger
March 18, 2016 â People with autism pass away younger on average than those without the condition, according to recent research.
The Swedish study found that adults with autism and a learning disability are 40 times more likely to die early due to a neurological condition than those in the general population.
Adults with autism, but without an additional learning disability, were nine times more likely to die from suicide than those without autism.
The Swedish study, carried out by the Karolinska Institute, was based on the health records of 27,122 autistic adults diagnosed between 1987 and 2009, compared with more than 2 million people in the general population.
The researchers found that people with autism died 16 years earlier at an average age of 54. Adults with the condition and learning disabilities died more than 30 years earlier than people without autism at an average age of 39.5 years. Adults with autism and without a learning disability died on average 12 years earlier, at 58.
The condition affects how people communicate and relate to others, and it influences how they make sense of the world around them. Symptoms can range from mild to very severe.
More than 3.5 million Americans live with an autism spectrum disorder, research suggests. It affects 1 in 68 children, the CDC estimates.
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