What Causes Intellectual Or Cognitive Impairments
Intellectual or cognitive impairments can start any time before a child reaches the age of 18 years. Persons who have intellectual disabilities may have other impairments as well. Examples of coexisting conditions may include: cerebral palsy, seizure disorders, vision impairment, hearing loss, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder . Persons with severe intellectual disabilities are more likely to have additional limitations than persons with milder intellectual disabilities .
Losing Control Of Emotions
Children with autism often lose control of their emotions and experience meltdowns . In autism, meltdowns are almost always the result of either sensory assaults, anxiety, frustration, or a combination of all three.
In a child who has not been diagnosed with autism, however, the symptoms may look like oppositional defiant disorder which is considered a behavioral disorder.
Children with higher-functioning autism may also receive a range of inappropriate diagnoses before receiving their autism diagnosis. Some of the most common include ADHD, hyperlexia, learning disabilities, and speech delays.
It’s important to note that some children with very high functioning autism may not be diagnosed until they are well into their teens or even adulthood. When that happens, it can be tricky. Developmental disabilities usually appear in childhood, and it may be necessary to dig into an individual’s past to unearth signs that disabilities existed prior to adulthood.
If childhood information isn’t readily available, it may be impossible to provide an autism spectrum diagnosis even if it is the most appropriate diagnosis based on symptoms and behavior.
Can People With Autism Receive Disability Benefits
In the USA, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act , a public school must provide services to a child who qualifies.
In order for a child with autism to qualify for disability benefits, according to the Social Security Administration , Section 112.10 of the Impairment Listing Manual called a Blue Book, the requirements from both Part A and Part B must apply.
In essence, Part A states that there need to be deficiencies in communication, both verbal and nonverbal, as well as in social reciprocity. There would also need to be severely limiting repetitious traits that present in the childs behavior or activities. These deficiencies and limits would need to have medical proof. Part B basically calls for an extreme limitation of one area or a marked limitation of two areas of cognition which include but are not limited to understanding, memory, social interaction, focus, and self-management. Check out the Impairment Listing Manual for more qualification and benefits information.
You May Like: Autism Cognitive Development
Is Rett Syndrome An Asd
Children with Rett syndrome often have behaviors similar to autism, and experts used to group it among spectrum disorders. But now that itâs known to be caused by a genetic mutation, itâs no longer considered an ASD.
National Institute of Mental Health: “Autism Spectrum Disorders.”
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: “Asperger Syndrome Fact Sheet.”
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry: âSpecifying PDD-NOS: A Comparison of PDD-NOS, Asperger Syndrome, and Autism.â
Psychiatric Clinics of North America: âThe autistic spectrum: subgroups, boundaries, and treatment.â
Spectrum: âReclassification of Rett syndrome diagnosis stirs concerns.â
Rettsyndrome.org: âWhat is Rett Syndrome?â
Autism Speaks: âAsperger Syndrome,â âAbout Autism: Why Was My Child Diagnosed with Autism? And What Does It Mean?â
Centers for Disease Control: âFacts About ASD.â
What To Say & Not To Say
People with intellectual or developmental disabilities may find it hard to do many things most of us take for granted.
These disabilities can mildly or profoundly limit their ability to learn, socialize and take care of their everyday needs.
You may not be able to know that someone has this disability unless you are told, or you notice the way they act, ask questions or use body language.
You May Like: Best Dog For Autism
Communication Styles For People With Autism
The impairment includes both spoken language and non-verbal skills. People with autism may have no speech , or may have difficulty with speech production and/or conversation skills. There may be a total lack of development of speech which is also not compensated by the development of non-verbal modes of communication . In individuals who have speech, there may be a repetitive and stereotypic use of language, abnormal prosody , immature grammatical structures. There may be use of metaphorical language and/or neologisms which is understood only by those familiar with individuals communication style. There are also impairments in ones ability to initiate or sustain conversation with others.
Students Who Viewed This Also Studied
* EDCU 304 Final Project – Classroom Management Plan.docx
Metropolitan Community College, Business & Technology
University of Massachusetts, Amherst EDUCATION 325
* EDCU 304 Final Project – Classroom Management Plan.docx
University of Massachusetts, Amherst EDUCATION 325
Classroom Management Plan.docx
Metropolitan Community College, Business & Technology ENGLISH 101
Habibat week 2 journal.docx
You May Like: What Is The Life Expectancy Of People With Autism
Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified
The category of Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified is used when the child exhibits impairment in the development of social interaction, or verbal and non-verbal communication or when stereotyped behaviour or activities are present but the criteria for any specific pervasive developmental disorder is not met.
Why should I hire a person with a disability? Can they do the job?
A person with a disability can do the job just like anyone else providing they have been supported with reasonable accommodation.
Will my WSIB premiums go up?
According to the Workplace Safety Insurance Board, your premiums cannot be increased on the basis that some of your workers have disabilities. Workers with disabilities have excellent safety records on the job.
What should I know about interviewing someone with a disability?
Most people are willing to talk about their disability and how it will affect their work. If someone does not disclose their disability, keep the conversation focused on Do you require any accommodation to assist you to be fully productive? Also, if a potential employee is referred by one of the agencies providing employment services for persons with disabilities, a counsellor or job coach can offer to assist with the interview process.
Will they need to take a lot of time away from work?
Actually, most persons with disabilities have the same or better record for attendance on the job. section.
Why Children Are Misdiagnosed
Autism is not always a child’s first diagnosis, particularly if he or she is verbal and of average intelligence. Not infrequently, children who wind up with an autism diagnosis receive a range of other diagnoses firstincluding, in some cases, other types of mental disorders.
There is a simple reason for these misdiagnoses: a child who is bright and verbal may not be evaluated for autism. As a result, the child’s symptoms are viewed not as a set of related challenges, but as individual issues that could potentially be signs of another mental illness. There are a number of behaviors in autism and other mental illnesses that may share characteristics and lead to an erroneous diagnosis.
Don’t Miss: Is Nick Eh 30 Canadian
A Child Who Is Both On The Autism Spectrum And Has Co
Very high level, complex needs, in this context, may not be consequent of Autism of itself, but rather consequent of the child having intellectual disability and / or the combined challenges of both Intellectual disability and Autism.Identifying a co-concurring Intellectual Disability in an Autistic child is important to best support the individual learning needs and development of independence skills of that child. An Intellectual Disabled Autistic child will, for example, benefit from more repetition, including pre-teaching and re-teaching, particularly in intellectual functioning areas, compared to other Autistic children their age.
Importantly, presuming competence that is assuming a person has capacity to think, understand and learn is the only respectful path when interacting with both Autistic and / or Intellectually Disabled individuals. With the right supports, all individuals are capable of growing, learning and developing and, all individuals, irrelevant of intellectual challenges, have their own personalities and preferences which should also be respected.
What Are Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism spectrum disorders are defined by:
- Characteristic deficits in reciprocal social interactions and communication
- The presence of unusual, restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests. Social impairments are the core deficit in all ASDs.
Autism spectrum disorders have moved to the forefront of child psychiatry, psychology, and developmental pediatrics in recent years, as community awareness has increased and incidence rates continue to grow at an alarming rate.
Autism currently ranks as the second most common developmental disability diagnosed in the United States, behind intellectual disability and in front of cerebral palsy, hearing loss and vision impairment.1 2006 prevalence estimates reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention place the rate of ASD at 1 in 110 children, with four times more boys affected than girls . 2
The term autism spectrum disorders is used interchangeably with pervasive developmental disorders to refer to autism and the four autistic-like conditions described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision . 3 The other disorders are Aspergers disorder, Retts disorder, childhood disintegration disorder , and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified .
1. Yeargin-Allsopp M, Rice C, Karapurkar T, Doernberg N, Boyle C, Murphy C . Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. The journal of the American medical association, 289, 49-55.
Recommended Reading: Is Level 2 Autism High Functioning
The Autism And Developmental Disabilities Lab
We are the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Lab at Simon Fraser University in the Department of Psychology. Under the direction of Dr. Grace Iarocci, we conduct research on Autism Spectrum Disorders, Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, and other Developmental Disabilities.
The director, students, and staff of the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Lab are committed to maximizing the quality of life and social development for children with and without developmental disabilities. We believe in the full inclusion of all children in society. We believe that research is needed to achieve this ideal of inclusion. We recognize the significant challenges to social inclusion faced by children with developmental disabilities and our research is designed to produce information to address these challenges through improved awareness, understanding, and teaching strategies.
Can Developmental Disability Be Called Something Else
Developmental disabilities that may also include an intellectual disability are briefly described below. Intellectual disabilities can also be caused by a head injury, stroke or illness. For some no cause is found. Intellectual disabilities will vary in degree and effect from person to person, just as individual capabilities vary considerably among people who do not have an intellectual disability. People should not make generalizations about the needs of persons with intellectual disabilities. In some instances an intellectual disability will not be obvious from a persons appearance, nor will it be accompanied by a physical disability. Persons with intellectual disabilities successfully perform a wide range of jobs, and can be dependable workers.
You May Like: Can A Child Outgrow Autism
Repetitive And Restrictive Behaviour
With its unwritten rules, the world can seem a very unpredictable and confusing place to autistic people. This is why they often prefer to have routines so that they know what is going to happen. They may want to travel the same way to and from school or work, wear the same clothes or eat exactly the same food for breakfast.
Autistic people may also repeat movements such as hand flapping, rocking or the repetitive use of an object such as twirling a pen or opening and closing a door. Autistic people often engage in these behaviours to help calm themselves when they are stressed or anxious, but many autistic people do it because they find it enjoyable.
Change to routine can also be very distressing for autistic people and make them very anxious. It could be having to adjust to big events like Christmas or changing schools, facing uncertainty at work, or something simpler like a bus detour that can trigger their anxiety.
Deficits In Social Communication
Children with autism may hyper-focus on their areas of particular interest, essentially ignoring the interests and concerns of others. In autism, this behavior is the result of deficits in social communication in essence, children with autism may be unaware that others have thoughts and feelings different from their own.
This could be another potential area of misdiagnoses, however, since the behavior itself can very much resemble some of the self-obsession that may be present in narcissistic personality disorder.
Don’t Miss: What Is The Best Pet For An Autistic Child
Is Autism A Developmental Disability
Yes, autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disability, based on a neurodevelopmental disorder. The disorder occurs when brain development is impaired by a number of structural and functional abnormalities.
These developmental abnormalities begin in the fetus and continue through childhood. Most of these abnormalities are caused by a number of faulty genes, and the many possible combinations of these genes may explain why there are so many different ways that autism can appear.
Abnormalities that occur in autism are also influenced by environmental factors that disrupt normal brain formative processes. Some of these occur during pregnancy while others occur after birth.
These genetic and environmental factors result in impaired brain development, beginning during pregnancy and ending when the brain stops developing in adulthood .
Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute
Supporting individuals with developmental disabilities such as autism, as well as their caregivers and service providers, is central to the work of FPG. Understanding developmental trajectories and the impact of a developmental disability on the individual, family, and broader community informs both theory and practice. High-quality intervention across the age range can ensure that individuals with developmental disabilities and their families fully participate in their community in ways that are meaningful to them. FPG investigators have identified central features of high-quality intervention, such as family-focused programming, early childhood inclusion, and the use of identified evidence-based practices. They lead the field in translating scientific knowledge into practical information for teachers and service providers, and actively join their colleagues from implementation science in promoting adoption and use of effective intervention practices in schools, homes, and community settings.
Recommended Reading: How To Make A Visual Schedule For Autism
Types Of Developmental Disabilities And Delays
At Hear 2 Learn, we believe in empowering children to achieve their full potential. Beyond hearing loss, below is information on some of the other types of developmental disabilities and delays that we see at Hear 2 Learn.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism, also known as autism spectrum disorder , is a type of developmental disorder affecting an individual’s social skills, communication skills and behavior. Autism Signs and Symptoms
Autism symptoms, or signs of autism in children or adults, include, but are not necessarily limited to:
- Not looking at something when another person points at it out
- Challenges relating to others
- No interest in other people at all
- Avoiding eye contact
- A desire to be isolated
- Difficulties understanding other’s feelings or discussing their own feelings
- Preferring not to be held
- Appearing unaware when people speak to them, but is responsive to other noises
- Very interested in people, but unfamiliar with how to talk, play or relate with others
- Repeating words or phrases that are said to them, or repeating words in place of normal language
- Difficulties communicating needs using typical words or motions
- Repeating actions multiple times
- Difficulties adapting to changes in a routine
- Reacting unusually to senses, such as taste, look, feel, sound or smell
- Loss of skills that the child or adult once had
What is Down Syndrome?
A Down Syndrome Test is Typically Used for a Down Syndrome Diagnosis
Down Syndrome Symptoms
Speech Disorders and Language Disorders
Family Support For Autistic People
The family members of autistic individuals are also likely to need some support. Having an autistic child can have a significant effect on parents, who may react to the diagnosis in a variety of ways, including relief, shock, grief, anger and guilt.
Feelings of stress, confusion and anxiety are also common in parents who are caring for an autistic child. It can be valuable for parents to consider joining a support group or participating in counselling.
For more information visit the Better Health Channel page Autism spectrum disorder tips for parents.
Read Also: The Good Doctor Autism Representation
Restrictive / Repetitive Behaviors May Include:
- Repeating certain behaviors or having unusual behaviors. For example, repeating words or phrases, a behavior called echolalia
- Having a lasting intense interest in certain topics, such as numbers, details, or facts
- Having overly focused interests, such as with moving objects or parts of objects
- Getting upset by slight changes in a routine
- Being more or less sensitive than other people to sensory input, such as light, noise, clothing, or temperature
People with ASD may also experience sleep problems and irritability. Although people with ASD experience many challenges, they may also have many strengths, including:
- Being able to learn things in detail and remember information for long periods of time
- Being strong visual and auditory learners
- Excelling in math, science, music, or art
Social Communication And Social Interaction Challenges
Autistic people have difficulties with interpreting both verbal and non-verbal language like gestures or tone of voice. Some autistic people are unable to speak or have limited speech while other autistic people have very good language skills but struggle to understand sarcasm or tone of voice. Other challenges include:
- taking things literally and not understanding abstract concepts
- needing extra time to process information or answer questions
- repeating what others say to them
Autistic people often have difficulty ‘reading’ other people – recognising or understanding others’ feelings and intentions – and expressing their own emotions. This can make it very hard to navigate the social world. Autistic people may:
- appear to be insensitive
- seek out time alone when overloaded by other people
- not seek comfort from other people
- appear to behave ‘strangely’ or in a way thought to be socially inappropriate
- find it hard to form friendships.
You May Like: High Functioning Autism Vs Low