Response Definition And Measurement
The dependent variable was the percentage of correct urinations in thetoilet. Correct urination for the purpose of this study was defined as therelease of urine while seated on the toilet. The independent variable was theschool-based toilet training program. Assigned 1:1 staff were responsible forall data collection. Data were generated by recording each childs urinarystatus throughout the day. A monthly scatter plot was provided, which wasseparated into 30-min increments each day . Staff documented the occurrence of urinationimmediately in the cell corresponding with the time of day. The coded format onthe scatter plot included C for correct, A for accident, and I for incomplete.Correct was defined as the release of urine while seated on the toilet. Accidentwas defined as release of urine at any other location. Incomplete was defined aswhen the child neither urinated in the toilet nor had an accident during a30-min interval. At the end of each day, the percentage correct was determinedby a simple C/A+C equation . This allowed for a simple conversion to a percentage correct perday.
The data collected also allowed for detection of reliable times each participantwas more likely to produce urine throughout the day. These data were readilyavailable by plotting the times of the day over a more extended period of time and determining a pattern of urination.
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What Should Parents And Caregivers Do If They Are Concerned A Teenager With Asd May Be Depressed
If parents suspect their teenager with ASD is depressed, they should try asking about his/her mood. Some teenagers with ASD will be able to say how they are feeling, while others may have difficulty with this. It is common for teenagers with ASD to respond by saying they feel hungry, tired, or bored. If parents remain concerned about depression, a pediatrician or mental health clinician can conduct a more in-depth evaluation.
It can be helpful to prepare your teenager for an evaluation by telling him/her that the goal of the visit is to develop a treatment plan that will help him/her feel better. The assessment will include an evaluation of mood, a discussion of recent life changes or stressors, a review of past medical and mental health conditions, family history of mental illness, and a safety assessment. Since some people with depression many have thoughts of death or of wanting to kill themselves, it is very important for the evaluation to assess for these types of thoughts, so that the treatment team can work with your teenager and family to decrease the risk of self-harm and suicide.
Are Siblings At Greater Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder
The truth is that genetics do play a role in autism. When one child is diagnosed with ASD, the next child to come along has about a 20% greater risk of developing autism than normal. When the first two children in a family have both been diagnosed with ASD, the third child has about a 32% greater risk of developing ASD.
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Learn More About Your Familys Ally In Growth
At Ally Pediatric Therapy, we have decades of experience assisting families through any and all behavioral challenges for children with autism. Working with professionals to help with potty training can be so beneficial for your family and is something we specialize in. Wed love to help make it less stressful for you.
If you are looking to take the next step towards helping your child with autism, please reach out today wed love to help make a difference for you and your family.
Associated Medical & Mental Health Conditions
- Autism can affect the whole body.
- Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder affects an estimated 30 to 61 percent of children with autism.
- More than half of children with autism have one or more chronic sleep problems.
- Anxiety disorders affect an estimated 11 to 40 percent of children and teens on the autism spectrum.
- Depression affects an estimated 7% of children and 26% of adults with autism.
- Children with autism are nearly eight times more likely to suffer from one or more chronic gastrointestinal disorders than are other children.
- As many as one-third of people with autism have epilepsy .
- Studies suggest that schizophrenia affects between 4 and 35 percent of adults with autism. By contrast, schizophrenia affects an estimated 1.1 percent of the general population.
- Autism-associated health problems extend across the life span from young children to senior citizens. Nearly a third of 2 to 5 year olds with autism are overweight and 16 percent are obese. By contrast, less than a quarter of 2 to 5 year olds in the general population are overweight and only 10 percent are medically obese.
- Risperidone and aripiprazole, the only FDA-approved medications for autism-associated agitation and irritability.
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Teenage Autism Signs: How To Properly Diagnose
Your child is always growing and changing. One day, they’re merry little people who can’t wait to chatter about their days with you. The next, they’re sullen creatures who won’t make eye contact or talk with you at all. Could you be seeing signs of autism in teens?
Most autism cases are diagnosed during childhood. People can’t develop the disorder later in life. But mild autism symptoms can be overlooked when people are young, and they may cause added concern during adolescence.
A teen autism diagnosis can be freeing. Some people appreciate the deeper understanding that comes with a label and therapy. Be prepared to support your child through this process.
The Importance Of Joint Attention
Joint attention is crucial for language development. In order for a child to learn a word, he has to hear it and associate the label with an object. To illustrate, a typically developing child will look at the dog that his parents are pointing to, and hear them say Dog. He looks back at his parents to make sure that they are talking about the dog, and then looks back at the dog again. As he hears the word, dog over and over again, he starts to link the word dog with that furry four-legged creature wagging its tail.
In another scenario, the child may hold up a teddy bear and look at his parents. His parents may then respond with Oh! Teddy! The child then start to associate the label to the soft toy in his hands.
Now imagine a child lacking joint attention. Even if he had heard dog, he may not know what they are referring to if he is not responding to his parents point. In this scenario, language learning becomes difficult, if not darn near impossible.
Not only does joint attention has an impact on language, it is also necessary for social development. When children play, they are focused on and sharing toys. At a higher level, they share a make believe theme and contribute ideas to it.
Also in conversations, two people talk about an object, event or person. However, this interaction does not only linger on one topic but rather jumps from topic to topic.
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What Are The Treatments For Aspergers Syndrome
Treatment of Aspergers syndrome involves a multidisciplinary approach.
Medical therapy is not effective in treating Asperger syndrome, although medications may be prescribed to help control troubling symptoms or symptoms of other psychiatric conditions that may coexist with Aspergers syndrome. In some cases, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are used for relief of anxiety or depression. Medical treatments for ADHD may also be tried if there is significant hyperactivity and/or distraction.
A number of behavioral therapies and educational interventions can help people with Aspergers syndrome, although all of these may not be necessary in a given individual. The type of interventions chosen must be based upon the individuals age and needs. Types of interventions that have been shown to be of benefit include:
Is There A Cure For Autism
No, currently autism has no cure. Early intervention during the preschool years can help the child manage their behavioral issues.
Treatment options include
- Behavioral therapy: This focuses on reducing problem behaviors. Children are taught how to behave in social situations and communicate better with others. It also involves counseling the parents and teaching them ways to reach out to their child.
- Educational therapies: Children with autism spectrum disorder respond well to highly structured educational programs. Successful programs consist of various activities to improve social skills, communication and behavior. Speech therapy to improve communication skills, occupational therapy to teach activities of daily living and physical therapy to improve movement and balance may be beneficial.
- Medications: Specific medications can help control symptoms such as hyperactivity, extreme anxiety and severe behavioral issues. Some kids may also have medical issues, such as epilepsy, poor sleep and constipation that need medical management.
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Autism Signs In Children
Spotting the early signs of autism in young children can be hard if youâre not an autism expert.
Many of these signs are common to all young children but they are seen more often in children who have autism.
Weâve listed here some common red flags for autism â if your child shows some of these then itâs time to check in with a qualified professional.
We also list typical developmental milestones which may be used as a guide to gauge a childâs development. If there are any concerns about a childâs development, or if there is a loss of any skills at any age, talk to a doctor as soon as possible.
- Does not turn head to locate sounds and appears not to respond to loud noises
- Does not push down on legs when feet placed on a firm surface
- Does not show affection to primary caregiver, dislikes being cuddled
- Does not crawl, cannot stand when supported
- Does not use gestures such as waving or pointing
- Cannot walk by 18 months or walks only on his toes, cannot push a wheeled toy
- Does not speak does not imitate actions, cannot follow simple instructions
- Does not appear to know the function of common household object such as a telephone by 15 months
Verbal Signs Of Autism In A Teen Might Include:
- Not knowing how to engage in a two-way conversation Usually talking about a single topic without allowing the other person to talk or respond
- Only wanting to talk about a single topic and not wanting to talk about things that do not interest him/her
- Taking things literally, such as holding a ball close to his/her eye when told to Keep your eye on the ball.
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He Got Expelled As A Toddler
We all know that kids can be quite the handful. Lets just keep it real here and admit that they can be little devils! This young age is not called terrible twos for no reason at all and news flash, the behavior doesnt always magically disappear on their third birthday.
While no parent wants to confess that their kids are trouble makers, we parents all deal with bad choices made by our children at one point or another.
Apparently Kate was incredibly ashamed that her two little ones got kicked out of their school. Both Alexis and Collin were expelled from the ritzy Pennsylvania school in which they were enrolled. She finally admitted five years later that the school wasnt meeting their needs and decided to tutor them at home.
Risk Of Having A Second Child With Autism Shockingly High Study Shows
Parents who have one child with autism have a one-in-five chance of having another child with the disorder a much higher risk than previously thought, a major new study has found.
The risk jumps to one-in-four if the parents are having a boy, and goes even higher to one-in-three if the parents have two children with autism spectrum disorder.
This represents a major change in estimates of risk to younger siblings, said Dr. Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, a study co-author and professor of pediatrics at the University of Alberta.
Previously, geneticists had estimated the risk of having a second child being diagnosed with autism at between 3 and 10 per cent.
Researchers say the findings will help parents of children with autism make family planning decisions. The study also underscores the importance of closely watching younger siblings for signs of autism so that interventional therapy can be started as early as possible.
It emphasizes that younger siblings truly need to be carefully monitored, Zwaigenbaum said.
The international study, which included researchers from Edmonton, Halifax and Toronto, is the largest yet to investigate the risk of autism recurrence among siblings.
It found infants who had older siblings with autism have a 19 per cent chance of being diagnosed with the disorder. The risk rises to 26 per cent for male infants, and 32 per cent for infants who have two or more older siblings with autism.
Gender selection is a worry, Roberts said.
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Is There A Cure For Aspergers Syndrome
Currently there is no cure for ASD. Nor are there any home remedies or herbal supplements proven to cure Aspergers syndrome or related conditions.
But several non-surgical treatments exist to help manage many of the conditions symptoms including depression, social anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder .
Therapy is another good alternative for exploring ways to improve quality of life for you, your child or your students.
Many people with Aspergers syndrome say that therapy helped them to deal with their symptoms or other problems. Therapy providers for children and adults with Aspergers syndrome include:
- Physical therapists: Physical therapy can help improve coordination and balance. It can also help them to focus better when faced with distracting noises or sights.
- Speech therapists: Speech therapy can improve your ability to speak clearly and at appropriate volumes.
- Occupational therapists: Occupational therapy can help you learn job skills needed to become and stay independent.
- Family or relationship therapists: This type of therapy can help children and adults have healthier relationships with friends and loved ones.
Your healthcare provider can give you suggestions or referrals to these kinds of therapists.
What Is Executive Functioning
“If you think of your brain as an orchestra, executive functioning is the conductor, making sure all the parts are working together and working properly,” explained neuropsychologist Michael Rosenthal of the Child Mind Institute. Dr. Rosenthal is an author of a new study on executive function problems in teens with ASD and intelligence quotient scores of 70 or above.
People use executive skills when they make plans, keep track of time, remember past experiences and relate them to the present, change course if they hit a roadblock, ask for help, maintain self-control and work successfully in a group.11
Something as mundane as food shopping requires multiple executive skills, Dr. Rosenthal said.
“First you need ‘initiation’ skills to get yourself off the couch. The next step is to ‘plan and organize’ a list of the items you need to get. You need to think about how many meals you need to make and how much money you have in the bank. Let’s imagine the first thing on your list is pears, but when you go to the produce section, the pears are all bruised. You have to have the ‘cognitive flexibility’ to say, ‘Instead of pears, I will buy apples.’ You need ‘inhibition’ to keep from going to the candy aisle, and your ‘working memory’ will help you keep track of the items you’ve purchased,” he said.
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Is There A Test For Asd In Adults
Clinicians have developed different tests that can help diagnose ASD in adults. These include diagnostic tests such as ADOS 2 Module 4, ADI-R, and 3Di Adult.
However, it is not clear how reliable these tests are for adults. The reasons for this include:
- Researchers who look at the reliability of ASD tests often use a small number of study participants.
- Not many research studies on testing for adult ASD include enough participants from historically underserved groups, such as People of Color or people who are LGBTQIA+. This means the results of studies looking at ASD testing methods may not represent a true population of autistic adults.
- Many clinicians may not be familiar with the signs of ASD in adulthood. This is especially true if the patientâs symptoms are not severe or if the patient also has other conditions, for example, anxiety.
Autistic people may have of co-occurring conditions, such as anxiety or depression, than those in the general population.
What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder Previously Called Autism And Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the following:
- Difficulties in social communication differences, including verbal and nonverbal communication.
- Deficits in social interactions.
- Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities and sensory problems
Many of those with ASD can have delayed or absence of language development, intellectual disabilities, poor motor coordination and attention weaknesses.
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Other Issues Associated With Autism
Older autistic children and teenagers often have other issues as well. These might include:
- difficulty with sleep for example, they might have difficulty falling asleep, or might regularly wake up or have broken sleep patterns
- anxiety or feeling overwhelmed for example, they might feel anxious about going to new places, or being in social situations
- depression older autistic children and teenagers who are aware of their differences are also often aware of how others see them and can feel like outsiders. These feelings of low mood might be intensified by changing hormone levels during puberty
- aggressive behaviour they often have sensory sensitivities that can lead to sudden aggressive behaviour. They might have difficulty understanding whats going on around them, which can lead to frustration building up
- eating disorders for example, they might have difficulty moving to secondary school and might develop an eating disorder to cope with feelings of anxiety
- difficulty with organisational skills they might find the increase in complexity at secondary school hard to manage
- school refusal they might feel overwhelmed or confused at school. They might also be vulnerable to bullying at school
- gender dysphoria autistic children and teenagers can be more likely than other children and teenagers to identify as a gender thats different from the sex they were assigned at birth. If they feel distressed about this its called gender dysphoria.