Autism Spectrum Disorder: Is There A Treatment
There are several Autism Spectrum therapies but the most common therapeutic approaches include the Picture Exchange Communication System , Treatment of Autistic and Communication Handicapped Children , Applied Behavioural Analysis , sensory integration and speech and language therapy.
However, there are many others that have proven to be effective, they are based on the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis and they are the Discrete Trial Training , Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention , Pivotal Response Treatment and Verbal Behavior Intervention .
Many treatments have been proposed for treating Autism Spectrum Disorders were specialized and supportive educational programming, communication and social skills training, and behavioral therapy are contemplated to be the most effective.
Interdisciplinary approaches include occupational and physical therapy to address comorbid difficulties such as coordination and sensory deficits.
In regards to behavioral therapy as is the case of ABA , the main goal is the improvement of severe behavioral problems in several areas such as language, social or academic skills.
If we talk about Autism Spectrum Therapies, we necessarily need to understand what Autism Spectrum Disorder is.
The Levels Of Autism: Unique Treatment Approaches For Each
Autism is a disorder where people suffer from a range of social, communication, and behavioral problems. The disabilities occur on a spectrum, which is why autism is also known as autism spectrum disorder.
There are three general levels of autism, ranging from mild impairments that require minimal therapy and intervention, to severe impairments that need intensive, multidisciplinary guidance.
Regardless of the level, autism is a lifelong condition. Even those with only a mild form of the disability will require some degree of ongoing therapy and monitoring for many years.
How Likely Is It To Have A Child With Autism
Children born to older parents are at a higher risk for having autism. Parents who have a child with ASD have a 2 to 18 percent chance of having a second child who is also affected. Studies have shown that among identical twins, if one child has autism, the other will be affected about 36 to 95 percent of the time.
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Level 2 Asd: Requiring Substantial Support
Level 2 ASD is the middle-range of autism in terms of severity of symptoms and needs for supports.
People who qualify as having Level 2 ASD need more support than people with Level 1 ASD. They have more difficulty with social skills. Their challenges in social situations may be more noticeable to other people around them as compared to those with Level 1 ASD.
People with Level 2 ASD may or may not communicate verbally. If they do, their conversations may be very short or only on specific topics or they may need extensive support in order to participate in social activities.
The nonverbal behavior of people with Level 2 ASD may be more atypical from the majority of their peers. They may not look at someone who is talking to them. They may not make much eye contact. They may not express emotions through tone of voice or through facial expressions in the same way that most other people do.
People with Level 2 ASD struggle more than those with Level 1 ASD regarding their restrictive or repetitive behaviors. They may have routines or habits that they feel they must do and, if these get interrupted, they become very uncomfortable or upset.
Level : Requiring Support
A person who meets the criteria for level 1 may face social challenges that require some support.
They may find it difficult to:
- initiate conversations with others
- respond as others would expect
- maintain interest in the conversation
As a result, it can be hard to make friends, especially without the right support.
The person may also:
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What Are The Three Levels Of Autism Understanding Them In Detail
In 2013 when DSM-5 was published and a major change in how children with autism were diagnosed was made, it created confusion for many. While some concepts are coming to use, certain terminologies are still confusing. One such change was switching from high vs. low functioning autism to the three levels of autism.
Many people still use the previous categorization to understand and cater to a persons needs. However, the new spectrum is completely different and its time we replace it with the classic one. To begin with, let us understand each of these levels in detail!
What Are The Characteristics Of Asd
ASD is a group of behavioral disorders that make it difficult for a person to interact with others or communicate effectively. Autism does not have a clear cause. There are several possible explanations, ranging from genetic flaws to environmental factors.
- People with autism engage in self-isolation and very repetitive behavior that appears to have a calming effect on them.
- Savant-like behavior is associated with ASD in rare cases.
- They are typically good in terms of language, particularly morphology, although they lack certain aspects of semantics and pragmatics.
- They do not appear to lack the requisite semantic representations. Rather, they have difficulty summoning the proper interpretation .
There are many different types of treatments available for ASD, including:
- Auditory training
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Autism Symptoms And Behaviors
Individuals with autism may present a range of symptoms, such as:
- Reduced eye contact
- Not engaging in imaginative play
- Repeating gestures or sounds
- Closely focused interests
- Indifference to temperature extremes
These are just a few examples of the symptoms an individual with autism may experience. Any individual could have some, all, or none of these symptoms. Keep in mind that having these symptoms does not necessarily mean a person has autism. Only a qualified medical professional can diagnose autism spectrum disorder.
Most importantly, an individual with autism is first and foremost an individual. Learning about the symptoms can help you start to understand the behaviors and challenges related to autism, but thats not the same as getting to know the individual. Each person with autism has their own strengths, likes, dislikes, interests, challenges, and skills, just like you do.
Is Tourettes A Form Of Autism
Tics may vary in type and severity over time. Some research suggests that tics are more common among children with learning disabilities and are seen more in special education classrooms. Children within the autism spectrum are also more likely to have tics.
Also Know, is Tourettes a developmental disorder? According to the DSM-5 classification, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by multiple motor and one or more phonic tics, lasting at least 1 year, with onset during childhood or adolescence .
Beside above, is constant throat clearing Tourettes?
Share on Pinterest Symptoms of Tourettes include frequent blinking, shaking the head, or clearing the throat. During adolescence and early adulthood, the tics will normally become less severe, but In 10 to 15 percent of cases, Tourettes can become worse as the person moves into adulthood.
Is there a link between Tourettes and schizophrenia?
Although cooccurrence of TS and schizophrenia is rarely reported, similarities suggest that relationship between these diagnoses might be. Therefore, whenever a patient presents with either of this diagnosis, evaluation should include the other disorders.
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Keeping Your Child With Autism Safe
One of the things that worries autism parents most is keeping their child safe. There are so many obstacles and issues that parents of typical children dont even have to consider. Autism symptoms like self-harm, head-banging, wandering, eloping, hiding, and running are just a few things that are far more prevalent in autistic kids. Safety proofing your home and childs surroundings is imperative.
Kids with autism are often less aware of safety concerns. Many low functioning children with autism have no idea that something is dangerous and are unable to understand the implications of their actions. When they get overwhelmed and triggered, they can run into the street without even noticing the cars coming. According to the National Autism Association, Autism itself does not affect life expectancy, however, research has shown that the mortality risk among individuals with autism is twice as high as the general population, in large part due to drowning and other accidents.
A recent study revealed that over 50% of children with autism wander or elope. Several parents report that despite extreme safety precautions being in place, their child has found a way to escape from their home or school. This issue is amplified when your autistic child is nonverbal . Simple things like going to school, riding a school bus, going to the mall, and playing in the park require extreme care and cause parents a tremendous amount of stress and worry.
What Is The Difference Between High
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As autism is perceived to be a spectrum, autistic people are often grouped into the high-functioning or low-functioning category. Individuals with high-functioning autism are diagnosed at level one and display mild symptoms of ASD, that may go unnoticed, as the person is able to communicate and may not display any motor or sensory challenges.
Despite this, some people with high-functioning ASD may struggle with a lack of routine, as well as forming and maintaining friendships. For such difficulties, people with high-functioning ASD may require some support but are able to live independently.
In contrast, people with low-functioning ASD are diagnosed at level three and will usually require support from a caregiver throughout their life. This is due to limited social skills and difficulties with motor skills, such as the movement and coordination of arms and legs.
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Defining The Broad Autism Phenotype
What exactly is the BAP and how many parents and siblings of people with autism have it? Where are the lines that separate having a few mild personality quirks from having the Broader Autism Phenotype? That separate the BAP from having autism spectrum disorder itself?
Unfortunately, there are no bright lines, or easy answers. On one hand, some parents have recognized a kinship with their child with autism and sought an ASD diagnosis for themselves, according to anecdote. Milder forms of autism, such as Asperger’s Syndrome, may not have been recognized by doctors or teachers when they were children. On the other hand, most studies show that at least half of the relatives of someone with autism do not have measurable impairments in their social and communication skills or behavior.8, 9
What about those relatives who fall in between? Different studies have that shown that some parents or siblings have mildly impaired language and conversational skills, planning and memory skills, or social skills and relationships. Exactly how many of these mild impairments, or traits, do they need to have the Broader Autism Phenotype? That’s hard to say. For one thing, BAP is not a diagnosis. Your doctor won’t find it in the psychiatric diagnosis manual. “It’s a research construct” something used by scientists to identify a personality type when they investigate autism, said Sarika U. Peters Ph.D., assistant professor of pediatrics and psychiatry at Vanderbilt University.
Terms For Types Of Autism That Are No Longer Used Today
When autism was categorized by types, the lines between the different types of autism could be blurry. Diagnosis was, and still is, complicated and often stressful for families.
If you or your child received a diagnosis before the DSM-5 changed, you may still be using the older terminology . Thats OK. Your doctor may continue to use those terms if they help.
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In The 2010s And Through Today
A new version of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was published in 2013. This is the manual doctors use today.
Asperger’s syndrome is no longer a diagnosis in the DSM-5. Instead, the manual provides just one diagnosis for all people with autism symptoms: autism spectrum disorder .
People with ASD have problems with social communication. They may resist changes in routine and be hypersensitive to noise, smell, touch, and other types of sensory experiences. These problems can range from mild to extreme.
People with mild symptoms and those with severe speech delays or sensory issues are all diagnosed with ASD.
The DSM-5 does identify the “level of support” a person with autism might need. These functional levels range from 1 to 3 based on the severity of one’s autism, with 1 describing people who need the least support because their symptoms are mild.
However, few people outside of the medical community refer to someone as having level 1 autism. Often, the terms Asperger’s syndrome or mild autism are still used.
Heres What You Should Know About The Different Types Of Autism
We often talk about autism existing on a spectrum, and thats because there are different types of autism, all of which manifest through various degrees of signs, symptoms, behaviors, and long-term outcomes. And, just as important as raising general awareness about autism is, raising awareness about the multiple ways it can appear in children and adults is critical in understanding how to offer the right support.
In its broadest definition, autism is a developmental disorder that impacts an individuals ability to communicate and socialize. Common signs of the disorder included delayed speech or lack of speech, difficulties making eye contact or sustaining social interaction, and preoccupations with certain activities or sensory stimuli. But within this larger definition are five distinct types of autism that together make up the spectrum of the illness. Heres what to know about them.
The 5 Primary Forms of Autism
There are five common forms of autism to be aware of:
Rare Types of Autism
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Is Rett Syndrome Autism
Rett syndrome or Rett disorder has also been called autism-dementia-ataxia-loss of purposeful hand use syndrome.
But its not included on the autism spectrum. Its a brain disorder caused by genetic mutations.
Classic Rett syndrome usually affects girls who display typical development for the first few months. Then, symptoms start to appear, involving issues with:
- language and communication
If you think your child might have symptoms of autism, speak with their pediatrician or a primary care physician. They can refer you to the appropriate specialist, such as a:
- developmental pediatrician
- psychiatrist or psychologist
You can also request an evaluation from your states public early childhood assistance center. Its free, and you dont need a doctors referral or diagnosis. Your local public school district can also provide assistance.
Theres no one medical test to diagnose autism spectrum disorder. A doctor can make the diagnosis with a comprehensive behavior evaluation and developmental screening.
Some people on the spectrum need minimal support services. Others require a lot. Either way, early intervention is associated with long-term positive effects.
What Is Tourettes Syndrome
Tourettes syndrome is a problem with the nervous system that causes people to make sudden movements or sounds, called tics, that they cant control. For example, someone with Tourettes might blink or clear their throat over and over again. Some people may blurt out words they dont intend to say.
Treatments can control tics, but some people donât need any unless their symptoms really bother them.
About 100,000 Americans have full-blown Tourettes syndrome, but more people have a milder form of the disease. It often starts in childhood, and more boys than girls get it. Symptoms often get better as children grow up. For some people, they go away completely.
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Limitations Of Asd Levels
Although the ASD levels are useful for diagnosing autism severity and support needs, the categories don’t give a full picture of the strengths and limitations of each level.
The three levels are not entirely inclusive of the symptoms and needs of all people with autism. The DSM-5 offers little specificity regarding the types of support that individuals need or situations when support is needed.
For example, some people with ASD need support at school but are fine at home, while others may do well at school but struggle in social situations.
What’s more, the level a person is assigned when they’re first diagnosed can shift as they develop and refine their social skills, and as anxiety, depression, or other issues common among people with autism change or grow more severe.
Assigning people to one of the three levels of autism can be useful for understanding what types of services and supports would serve them best.
It won’t, however, predict or account for unique details in their personality and behavior, which means the support and services they receive will need to be highly individualized.
Should I Get My Child Assessed
You should get your child assessed for ASD if:
- you have concerns
- you notice any signs or symptoms
- your child has a close relative with ASD
Normally, your health care provider will test your child first. You can help your health care provider understand the unusual behaviour you see by:
- taking photographs
- maintaining logs or diaries
- capturing these behaviours on video
If there are concerns, then your health care provider should refer you to a specialist for more tests. A specialist is the best person to help diagnose your child.
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