Changes In Reporting Practices
The CDC’s report on autism statistics is based on health and school records for 8-year-old children who live in select counties across the United States. The researchers are part of the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, which the CDC set up in 2000 to estimate autism prevalence.
Clinicians scanned the school records for signs of autism features, such as social problems or repetitive behaviors. They use data from 8-year-olds because most children are enrolled in school and have had routine health assessments by that age. However, the data is not based on whether children have been given an actual diagnosis of ASD.
Up until 1990, autism was not included in legislation aimed at guaranteeing an education to individuals with disabilities. In 1990, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act added autism to its list of conditions covered under the act. The new law also added transition services and assistive technologies to its requirements. Autism had never been tracked as an educational statistic before 1990. Since 1990, the incidence of autism in schools has risen dramatically.
Another set of prevalence estimates published in Pediatrics in 2019 found that the prevalence of autism in the United States rose from 1 in 91 children in 2009 to 1 in 40 in 2017. The results were based on telephone or in-person interviews with the parents of 88,530 children aged 3 to 17 years, collected by the CDC as part of its National Health Interview Survey.
Home And Leisure Challenges
Nearly all of us, as a result of limits on work, school, and community access due to needed restrictions of non-essential activities, have experienced some increased unstructured time at home. This has resulted in challenges for many individuals with ASD who can struggle with executive functioning, which includes planning, organization, task initiation and self-monitoring . Limitations in these skills make it difficult to alter routines, generate new ideas and independently incorporate them into daily schedules. In addition, many individuals with ASD have restricted or fixed interests. While these interests may not cause difficulties when balanced with a variety of community opportunities, during periods of excess unstructured time and limited scheduled variability, it can be easy to become stuck in these highly preferred interests or activities . These fixations, while comforting, may interfere with needed skills development and adaptations to cope with changing conditions. As schedules begin to normalize, it may be difficult to reallocate time to other important interests and activities. Children or adults with ASD who struggle with maintaining attention to tasks may have relied heavily on family members, caretakers or other natural supports to help them occupy their unstructured time.
Terminology And Distinction From Schizophrenia
As late as the mid-1970s there was little evidence of a genetic role in autism while in 2007 it was believed to be one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions. Although the rise of parent organizations and the destigmatization of childhood ASD have affected how ASD is viewed, parents continue to feel social stigma in situations where their childâs autistic behavior is perceived negatively, and many primary care physicians and medical specialists express some beliefs consistent with outdated autism research.
It took until 1980 for the DSM-III to differentiate autism from childhood schizophrenia. In 1987, the DSM-III-R provided a checklist for diagnosing autism. In May 2013, the DSM-5 was released, updating the classification for pervasive developmental disorders. The grouping of disorders, including PDD-NOS, autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and CDD, has been removed and replaced with the general term of Autism Spectrum Disorders. The two categories that exist are impaired social communication and/or interaction, and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors.
The Internet has helped autistic individuals bypass nonverbal cues and emotional sharing that they find difficult to deal with, and has given them a way to form online communities and work remotely.Societal and cultural aspects of autism have developed: some in the community seek a cure, while others believe that autism is simply another way of being.
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Education And Adult Life
The diagnosis of Donald Triplett would lead to the complex history of autism, which involved many conflicts among autism personnel and advocates.
From there, the history of autism would unfold across decades, playing out in many and varied dramatic episodes, bizarre twists, and star turns, both heroic and villainous, by researchers, educators, activists and autistic people themselves.
John Donvan and Caren Zucker, BBC Magazine
However, Donald Triplett and his family were distant from all this. He was enrolled in the local high school, where his teachers and classmates were accepting, and in 1958 he graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in French from Millsaps College. Later, he returned to his supportive hometown where he worked at the bank that was owned by his family. He learned how to drive and travel around the world in his spare time.
How Can A Caregiver Prepare Their Loved One With Autism For The Covid
Many people with ASD have already faced isolation, changes to their routines, and disruptions to their therapeutic care and education, says Banks. The process of getting a vaccination poses an added challenge, especially since many times the shots arent being given in a typical doctors office setting. Depending on where you live, getting a vaccine might mean going to a large stadium or convention center.
For some people with autism, experiences that are outside a typical daily routine can be upsetting, Banks explains. Theyll need to be introduced to the idea that they’re going to drive somewhere in their car, roll down their window, and somebody in medical equipment gear a face mask, shield, and gloves is going to give them an inoculation.
Hendrens advice: Depending on the person with ASDs ability to understand and express language, caregivers should try to explain the reason for the shot what will happen, step-by-step and perhaps even do a practice run with the person with ASD with the caregiver providing the example of what to expect.
The Autism Society of America has published visual explainers on its website that may be received and understood well by someone with autism. You can download them and show them to your loved one in preparation for COVID-19 vaccines, testing, and more.
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Social Communication And Interaction Skills
Social communication and interaction skills can be challenging for people with ASD.
Examples of social communication and social interaction characteristics related to ASD can include:
- Avoids or does not keep eye contact
- Does not respond to name by 9 months of age
- Does not show facial expressions like happy, sad, angry, and surprised by 9 months of age
- Does not play simple interactive games like pat-a-cake by 12 months of age
- Uses few or no gestures by 12 months of age
- Does not share interests with others
- Does not point or look at what you point to by 18 months of age
- Does not notice when others are hurt or sad by 24 months of age
- Does not pretend in play
- Shows little interest in peers
- Has trouble understanding other peoples feelings or talking about own feelings at 36 months of age or older
- Does not play games with turn taking by 60 months of age
Who Was The First Person To Be Diagnosed With Autism
Note: This article is part of a series on thehistory of autism treatment.
Origin of the term Autism
The first use of the word autistic was in the early 20th century, as a descriptor of symptoms. In 1912, Eugen Blueler used the term to define symptoms associated with schizophrenia. It wasnt until 1943 that autism was used as a diagnostic term. In the first case of autism, Dr. Leo Kanner used the term to diagnose a social and emotional disorder. Previous observations of patients with symptoms of autism had led psychiatrists to a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The diagnosis of autism was used with eleven patients that Dr. Kanner was studying at the time, but the story began with one patient, Donald Triplett.
Donald Triplett, First Case of Autism
In Search of Help for Donald
Dr. Kanners Observations
A Better Understanding of Autism
In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association , autism is included in a wide category of pervasive developmental disorders. Autism continues to be an area of ongoing research, discussion, and debate.
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Clinical Development And Diagnoses
Leo Kannerearly infantile autism
The word autism first took its modern sense in 1938 when Hans Asperger of the Vienna University Hospital adopted Bleuler’s terminology autistic psychopaths in a lecture in German about child psychology. Asperger was investigating an ASD now known as Asperger syndrome, though for various reasons it was not widely recognized as a separate diagnosis until 1981.Leo Kanner of the Johns Hopkins Hospital first used autism in its modern sense in English when he introduced the label early infantile autism in a 1943 report of 11 children with striking behavioral similarities. Almost all the characteristics described in Kanner’s first paper on the subject, notably “autistic aloneness” and “insistence on sameness”, are still regarded as typical of the autistic spectrum of disorders. It is not known whether Kanner derived the term independently of Asperger.
Kanner’s reuse of autism led to decades of confused terminology like infantile schizophrenia, and child psychiatry’s focus on maternal deprivation led to misconceptions of autism as an infant’s response to “refrigerator mothers“. Starting in the late 1960s autism was established as a separate syndrome.
Getting To The Causes Of Autism
Getting to the cause â or, more accurately, causes â of autism will be more difficult than unraveling the causes of cancer, says Gary Goldstein, MD, president and CEO of Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, a facility that helps children with autism and other developmental disorders.
âThere wonât be one single explanation,â says Marvin Natowicz, MD, PhD, a medical geneticist and vice chairman of the Genomic Medicine Institute at the Cleveland Clinic.
âThereâs been a lot of progress in the last few years in terms of understanding the causes of autism,â Natowicz says. âWe know a lot more than we did.â Still, he says, research has a long way to go. âOne number you see often is that about 10% of those with autism have a definitive diagnosis, a causative condition.â The other 90% of cases are still a puzzle to the experts.
Often, a child with autism will have a co-existing problem, such as a seizure disorder, depression, anxiety, or gastrointestinal or other health problems. At least 60 different disorders â genetic, metabolic, and neurologic â have been associated with autism, according to a report published in The New EnglandJournal of Medicine.
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Study: Intervening In Infancy May Prevent Some Cases Of Autism
Infants may show early signs of autism, but a diagnosis usually isn’t made until age 3.
Now, a new study suggests that jumpstarting therapy might stave off that diagnosis altogether.
Researchers say their preemptive, parent-led intervention could have a significant impact on children’s social development and longer-term disabilities.
“What we found is that the babies who received our therapy had reduced behaviors that we use to diagnose autism. And, in fact, the therapy was so effective in supporting their development, that the babies who had received the therapy were less likely to meet clinical criteria for autism,” said study author Andrew Whitehouse.
He’s a professor of autism research at Telethon Kids Institute and the University of Western Australia.
The four-year randomized trial, supervised by Telethon Kids, included 104 babies in Australia, ages 9 months to 14 months. Most were followed to age 3.
All had shown behavioral signs of autism, which can include reduced eye contact and less gesturing communication.
Half the participants received the typical autism therapies. The other half received a 10-session intervention using video feedback, which records the parents with the infant, so parents can watch it later and observe how their baby communicates.
Both groups went through the sessions for five months.
Kids First Research Network
Are you the parent of a child with autism spectrum disorder?
Help us establish a detailed classification of autism in order to drive research focused on targeted approaches for care and intervention.
The KidsFirst Research Network helps families like yours to:
- Build a community for autism in Northeast Ohio
- Participate in innovative research on autism
Join our research network today.
For more details please contact: Dr Anastasia Dimitropoulos or call
Enroll today at
This collaborative project is funded by the Hartwell Foundation in collaboration with Stanford Medicine, UC Davis Health, The MIND Institute and CWRU.
For participants’ rights questions, please contact Stanford University Institutional Review Board at 886-680-2906
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History Of Autism: When Was Autism First Diagnosed
For many conditions and disorders, it is easy to find the first point where they were initially described to this day. Their diagnostics criteria are clear. However, this has not been the case for autism. There have been several diagnoses in the past five decades, and they were less direct with several branching out.
In this article, we will talk about how autism diagnosis came to be, who contributed to what, and where we are today.
Developmental Evaluation And Testing
During this evaluation, the physician takes into account the parents reports, the developmental screening, psychological testing, and speech and language testing. Sometimes neurological and genetic testing can help rule out other disorders.
Getting a medical diagnosis is the first step to accessing services and support for your child through health insurance.
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Impact Of Service Delivery
Individuals with ASD demonstrate high rates of service utilization and utilization costs compared to other disabilities . Despite this, there is evidence highlighting significant unmet healthcare needs pre-pandemic: patient-level factors like challenges around appointments and sensory issues providers-level factors including lack of ASD knowledge and training and system-level factors such as accessibility of health care facilities, which limit service and referral pathways . Many people with ASD have experienced disruption in the services they utilized on a regular basis prior to the pandemic due to staff turnover and shortages, mandated community resource closures, and reduced or significantly modified access to needed specialized services .
What Is The Difference Between Autism And Autism Spectrum Disorder
The term autism was changed to autism spectrum disorder in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association. ASD is now an umbrella term that covers the following conditions:
- Autistic disorder.
- Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified .
- Asperger syndrome.
People with ASD have trouble with social interactions and with interpreting and using non-verbal and verbal communication in social contexts. Individuals with ASD may also have the following difficulties:
- Inflexible interests.
- Insistence on sameness in environment or routine.
- Repetitive motor and sensory behaviors, like flapping arms or rocking.
- Increased or decreased reactions to sensory stimuli.
How well someone with ASD can function in day-to-day life depends on the severity of their symptoms. Given that autism varies widely in severity and everyday impairment, the symptoms of some people arent always easily recognized.
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Screening Guidelines For Autism
Continued awareness of autism has resulted in increased routine screening by pediatricians, another contributing factor to a rise in cases. The American Academy of Pediatricians recommends that all children be screened for ASD at ages 18 and 24 months, along with regular developmental surveillance.
Is There A Link Between Covid
No, says Halladay. But an infection of any kind in the mother during pregnancy has been linked to a greater risk of ASD in children another incentive to be vaccinated, she says.
Halladay points to a study of U.S. participants published in Autism Research in October 2019, which found that maternal infection that included fever in the second trimester of pregnancy was associated with a twofold risk of ASD in children. A Swedish longitudinal study published that same year in JAMA Psychiatry found that fetal exposure to maternal infection was linked to a greater risk of an autism diagnosis in children. For many reasons, you do not want to get very sick from COVID-19 or any other type of infection when you are pregnant.
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The History Of Autism
It has been more than 50 years since Leo Kanner first described his classic autistic syndrome. Since then, the results of research and clinical work have helped us learn more about autism. More and more people are being diagnosed as autistic, although we still have a long way to go in creating a world that works for autistic people.
Read our charityâs timeline below to explore the history of autism, meet some of our âautism pioneersâ and find out more about the incredible work theyâve done.
A Daily Roundup Of News On Covid
byCharles Bankhead, Senior Editor, MedPage Today December 3, 2021
Note that some links may require registration or subscription.
New York health officials have identified five cases of the Omicron coronavirus variant in Long Island, Queens, and Brooklyn.
A confirmed Omicron case in Hawaii raised the number of affected states to five.
A company Christmas party appears to be the source of 60 new COVID infections in Norway, including 17 suspected cases of the Omicron variant.
As of Friday at 8 a.m. EST, the unofficial U.S. COVID-19 toll included 48,832,268 cases and 785,912 deaths, increases of 136,750 and 3,806, respectively, since the same time yesterday.
South African health officials said the Omicron variant poses a threefold higher risk of reinfection compared with the Delta variant.
Countermeasures to prevent the spread of the COVID Delta variant should form the basis for dealing with the emerging Omicron variant, according to the World Health Organization.
TIB Molbiol, a test maker recently acquired by Roche, developed three different tests to detect mutations in the Omicron variant.
Michigan’s latest COVID-19 wave has driven the caseload to levels seen during the early stages of the pandemic, driven primarily by unvaccinated individuals.
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